18. Diet and Health

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AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome)

the late stage of HIV infection, in which severe complications develop.

aneurysm (AN-you-rizm)

an abnormal enlargement or bulging of a blood vessel (usually an artery) caused by damage to or weakness in the blood vessel wall.

angina (an-JYE-nah or AN-ji-nah)

a painful feeling of tightness or pressure in and around the heart, often radiating to the back, neck, and arms; caused by a lack of oxygen to an area of heart muscle.

antibodies

large proteins of the blood and body fluids, produced by the immune system in response to the invasion of the body by foreign molecules (usually proteins called antigens). Antibodies combine with and inactivate the foreign invaders, thus protecting the body.

antigens

substances that elicit the formation of antibodies or an inflammation reaction from the immune system.

antipromoters

factors that oppose the development of cancer.

atherosclerosis

a type of artery disease characterized by plaques along the inner walls of the arteries.

autoimmune disorder

a condition in which the body develops antibodies to its own proteins and then proceeds to destroy cells containing these proteins. In type 1 diabetes, the body develops antibodies to its insulin and destroys the pancreatic cells that produce the insulin, creating an insulin deficiency.

B-cells

lymphocytes that produce antibodies. B stands for bone marrow, where the B-cells develop and mature.

C-reactive protein (CRP)

malignant growths or tumors that result from abnormal and uncontrolled cell division.

carcinogenesis (CAR-sin-oh-JEN-eh-sis)

the process of cancer development.

carcinogens (CAR-sin-oh-jenz or car-SIN-oh-jenz)

substances that can cause cancer (the adjective is carcinogenic).

cardiac output

the volume of blood pumped out by the heart each minute.

cardiovascular disease (CVD)

a general term for all diseases of the heart and blood vessels.

CHD risk equivalents

disorders that raise the risk of heart attacks, strokes, and other complications associated with cardiovascular disease to the same degree as existing CHD. These disorders include symptomatic carotid artery disease, peripheral arterial disease, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and diabetes mellitus.

coronary arteries

blood vessels that supply blood to the heart.

coronary heart disease (CHD)

the damage that occurs when the blood vessels carrying blood to the heart (the coronary arteries) become narrow and occluded.

cruciferous vegetables

vegetables of the cabbage family, including cauliflower, broccoli, and brussels sprouts.

cytokines (SIGH-toe-kines)

special proteins that direct immune and inflammatory responses.

diabetes mellitus (MELL-ih-tus or mell-EYEtus)

a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both.

embolism (EM-boh-lizm)

the obstruction of a blood vessel by an embolus (EM-boh-luss), or traveling clot, causing sudden tissue death.

emerging risk factors

recently identified factors that enhance the ability to predict disease risk in an individual.

heart attack

sudden tissue death caused by blockages of vessels that feed the heart muscle; also called myocardial (my-oh-KAR-dee-al) infarction (in-FARK-shun) or cardiac arrest.

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)

the virus that causes AIDS. The infection progresses to become an immune system disorder that leaves its victims defenseless against numerous infections.

hyperglycemia

elevated blood glucose concentrations.

hypertension

higher-than-normal blood pressure. Hypertension that develops without an identifiable cause is known as essential or primary hypertension; hypertension that is caused by a specific disorder such as kidney disease is known as secondary hypertension.

immune system

the body's natural defense against foreign materials that have penetrated the skin or mucous membranes.

immunoglobulins (IM-you-noh-GLOB-you-linz)

proteins capable of acting as antibodies.

infectious diseases

diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, parasites, or other microorganisms that can be transmitted from one person to another through air, water, or food; by contact; or through vector organisms such as mosquitoes.

initiators

factors that cause mutations that give rise to cancer, such as radiation and carcinogens.

lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) or Lp-PLA(2)

a lipoprotein-bound enzyme that generates potent proinflammatory and proatherogenic products such as oxidized free fatty acids and lysophosphatidylcholine. Lp-PLA(2) is a specific marker of plaque inflammation.

lymphocytes (LIM-foh-sites)

white blood cells that participate in acquired immunity; B-cells and T-cells.

malignant (ma-LIG-nant)

describes a cancerous cell or tumor, which can injure healthy tissue and spread cancer to other regions of the body.

metabolic syndrome

a combination of risk factors—insulin resistance, hypertension, abnormal blood lipids, and abdominal obesity—that greatly increase a person's risk of developing coronary heart disease; also called Syndrome X, insulin resistance syndrome, or dysmetabolic syndrome.

metastasize (me-TAS-tah-size)

the spread of cancer from one part of the body to another.

peripheral resistance

the resistance to pumped blood by the small arterial branches (arterioles) that carry blood to tissues.

phagocytes (FAG-oh-sites)

white blood cells (neutrophils and macrophages) that have the ability to ingest and destroy foreign substances.

phagocytosis (FAG-oh-sigh-TOH-sis)

the process by which phagocytes engulf and destroy foreign materials.

plaques

mounds of lipid material, mixed with smooth muscle cells and calcium, that develop in the artery walls in atherosclerosis.

platelets

tiny, disc-shaped bodies in the blood, important in blood clot formation.

prediabetes

condition in which blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes; considered a major risk factor for future diabetes and cardiovascular diseases; formerly called impaired glucose tolerance.

prehypertension

slightly higher than normal blood pressure, but not as high as hypertension (see Table 18-5).

promoters

factors that favor the development of cancers once they have begun.

stroke

an event in which the blood flow to a part of the brain is cut off; also called cerebrovascular accident (CVA).

synergistic (SIN-er-JIS-tick)

multiple factors operating together in such a way that their combined effects are greater than the sum of their individual effects.

T-cells

lymphocytes that attack antigens. T stands for the thymus gland, where the T-cells mature.

thrombosis (throm-BOH-sis)

the formation of a thrombus (THROMbus), or a blood clot, that may obstruct a blood vessel, causing gradual tissue death.

transient ischemic attack (TIA) (is-KEY-mik)

a temporary reduction in blood flow to the brain, which causes temporary symptoms that vary depending on the part of the brain affected. Common symptoms include light-headedness, visual disturbances, paralysis, staggering, numbness, and inability to swallow.

tumor

an abnormal tissue mass with no physiological function; also called a neoplasm (NEE-oh-plazm).

type 1 diabetes

the type of diabetes that accounts for 5-10% of diabetes cases and usually results from autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells. In this type of diabetes, the pancreas produces little or no insulin.

type 2 diabetes

the type of diabetes that accounts for 90-95% of diabetes cases and usually results from insulin resistance coupled with insufficient insulin secretion. Obesity is present in 80-90% of cases.

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