The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands was established in 1865 to aid refugees of the Civil War (including former slaves) and to administer confiscated property. Among other tasks, it sought to provide education to the former slaves. It was disbanded in 1872.
Ten Percent Plan
: Abraham Lincoln offered a full pardon to all Southerners called the 10 percent reconstruction plan. It decreed that a state could be reintegrated into the Union when 10 percent of its voters in the presidential election of 1860 had taken an oath of allegiance to the U.S. and pledged to abide by emancipation. The next step in the process would be for the states to formally erect a state government. At that time, Lincoln would recognize the purified regime. By 1864, Louisiana and Arkansas had established fully functioning Unionist governments.
A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote.
Wade Davis Plan
Response to Lincoln's 10% plan; 51% white males had to pledge loyalty to constitution, repidiated debts by states, appointed a provisional governor, and had to abolish slavery.
The Black Codes was a series of laws designed to regulate the affairs of the emancipated slaves. Mississippi passed the first such law in November 1865. The Black Codes aimed to ensure a stable and subservient labor force.
Common form of farming for freed slaves in the South (1860's), received a small plot of land, seed, fertilizer, tools from the landlord who decided what and how much should be planted; landlord usually took half of the harvest.
scalawags and carpetbaggers
Scalawags are hope to gain political offices with the help of the African-American vote and then use those offices to enrich themselves. Carpetbaggers where Democrats that used an equally unflatterring name for Northerners who moved to the South after the war.
Ku Klux Klan
secret society created by white southerners in 1866 that used terror and violence to keep African Americans from obtaining their civil rights
Moderate vs. Radical Republican
Moderate Republicans wanted the South to be reconnected with the North as soon as possible, where the radical Republicans wanted the South to suffer for leaving the Union and the Civil War by making them wait longer and levy harsher laws and fees on them.
1865, ended slavery in the United States by making it illegal
Amendment that was added to the U.S. Constitution in 1868. It contains the Due Process, Equal Protection, and Privileges and Immunities Clauses.
An Amendment to the Constitution, ratified after the Civil War in 1870, that forbids the denial of voting rights to any person based on race, color, or whether that person was previously a slave.