Chapter 3

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Cells are related to the nutrients we eat in foods because

nutrients can affect how the genes in cells work

A gene variation in the cells can occasionally cause an inborn error of metabolism. If this is discovered by a healthcare provider, the advice would be to

eat a special diet that will minimize its potential harm to the body

The importance of the lungs in the circulatory system is that they are responsible for

adding oxygen to the blood

Nutrients are delivered from the intestines through the circulatory system to the cells by

transport through the blood to the liver for chemical altering to make them better suited for use by the tissues

A person can eat when hunger is absent because

the conscious mind of the cortex can override body signals

During the fight-or-flight reaction to stress the nervous system reacts by

releasing stored glucose from the liver

What is the role of the phagocytes and lymphocytes in protecting the body from invading organisms?

killer T-cells seek out and destroy all foreign particles with the same identity

When given a choice between tasting a snack of cookies, potato chips, or dill pickles, most people would

select the cookies because of our preference for sweet tastes

Digestion of foods includes the mechanical actions of

peristalsis waves to move the foods down through the digestive tract

Which of the following statements is true regarding the timing of meals?

Timing of meals is important to feeling well

Chronic, low-grade inflammation in chronic disease is of interest because

it foretells of the risk of death from the disease

Digestion of macronutrients begins in the mouth with enzyme action on

starches by designated carbohydrases and fats by designated lipases

The digestive juices in the digestive tract include

pancreatic juice, which neutralizes stomach acids reaching the small intestine

The vast majority of fat digestion takes place in the

small intestine with lipases released by the gallbladder

You have just consumed a meal very high in fat. As a result, hormonal messages will tell an organ to send _____ in amounts matched to the amount of fat present.

bile

As food moves through the digestive tract it spends the most time in the

large intestine because of the need to partially digest fiber and absorb water

As the villi in the small intestine are exposed to nutrients

they will preferentially absorb a greater percentage of deficient nutrients

What are the major roles of the villi and microvilli in the small intestine?

the microvilli trap nutrients so the villi cells can absorb them

Which of the following would occur in a malnourished child?

The absorptive surface of the small intestine would shrink

Which of the following strategies should be used by someone experiencing heartburn?

Drink liquids an hour before or after meals and eat smaller meals

If you are taking medications to treat the discomfort caused by heartburn, it is important to know that

antacids will only temporarily relieve pain by neutralizing stomach acid for a while

Which of the following advice would you give to a friend suffering from constipation?

Consume foods with adequate fiber and drink enough water

When the colon is not functioning properly, complications that may arise include

irritable bowel syndrome caused by stress and lack of physical activity

The main purpose of the kidneys in the body is to

remove everyday wastes and water from the body

A person in an emergency situation is unable to eat for several weeks. Which of the following would provide the energy that this person would need to survive?

fat

Which of the following should be consumed at intervals throughout the day?

carbohydrate-containing foods

Glycogen is stored in the body for future use. If it is drawn upon it will

provide energy for cell activities during extended between-meal intervals

Excess nutrients are stored in various body tissues for future use. An example of this would be

calcium, which is stored in reserves in the skeletal system

If you do not eat on a regular basis throughout the day, the effect on the body will be

a coordinated effort to draw stored energy from various parts of the body

Which of the following deliver(s) one-half ounce of ethanol?

5 ounces and 12 ounces of beer

A person can become intoxicated almost immediately when drinking, especially if:

the stomach is empty

Which of the following organs makes almost all of the body's alcohol-processing machinery?

liver

Which of the following restores sobriety in someone who has been drinking alcohol?

time

Alcohol affects body functions in all of the following ways except

it slows down the synthesis of fatty acids

Alcohol's effect on nutrition is important because

alcohol causes the liver to expel folate into the blood for excretion by the kidneys

Although the recommendation is to drink in moderation if consuming alcohol, the following problem may still need to be considered

moderation is difficult to define because of differences in tolerance among people

You are concerned about a classmate who is binge drinking on a regular basis and want to let him know about long-term complications that may rise from that practice. What would you tell him to try to convince him to cut back on drinking?

excessive alcohol intake can lead to deterioration of skeletal and heart muscle

A friend of yours is considering drinking one glass of wine a day because she has heard that it may reduce her risk of heart attacks. What information would you provide to her?

in middle-aged populations, taking 1-2 drinks a day may benefit the heart

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