a prehistoric human
tools made by chipping thin flakes off larger stones.
trained to be useful to humans
society with a developed knowledge of frming, trade, government, art, and science.
Religion, government, laws, school, military that keep order, protect property, strengthen social class divisions, and make decisions.
the period of time after people first appeared but before they developed writing.
The switch from hunting and gathering to an agricultural society. Made it possible for humans to produce foods and stay in one place.
objects made and used by ancient people.
Moving constantly from one place to another and living by gathering fruits and hunting animals. The life of living off of needed resources.
a female figure that was fat and big and symbolized fertility.
more than needed.
the region of the Middle East that extends from the Nile River Valley to the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. The birthplace of civilization.
writing that uses wedge-shaped characters that the sumerins had.
an early city that was like a small, independent country with its own laws and government.
Sumerian governmental and religious leader of a city-state.
a person who writes for other people.
the southern part of Mesopatamia where civilization first started. It was made up of swamps.
the northern part of Mesopatamia. Characterized as a fertile plain.
a large territiory where several different groups are ruled by a single person.
goddess of love, fertility, and war.
Gilgamesh's best friend that was wise but died because of Gilgamesh's actions.
the guardian of a sacred cedar forest.
Survived the "great flood" in Gilgamesh and was granted eternal life.
The king of Akkad and started the first empire, the Akkadian Empire.
Defeated the Assyrians as king of the Neo-Babylonians. He rebuilt Babylon and named it one of the most important cities in Mesopatamia. Built the hanging gardens of babylon.
Hanging Gardens of Babylon
One of the wonders of the ancient world built by Nebuchadnezzar.
Cyrus the Great
Persian army expanded under him and he created the largest army in the ancient world.
10,000 elite Persian soldiers that were immediately replaced whenever one died.
The area closest to the Nile River and where ancient people farmed and lived.
The area of Egypt one level higher than the floodplain where ancient people hunted and were buried.
the area soth of Egypt that was powerful and rich with gold.
Book of the Dead
a guidebook for ancient Egyptians in the afterlife.
jars that contained the person's internal organs.
tiny statuettes that the ka and ba could reanimate if anything were to happen to the mummy. "The servants to the dead."
a single-story tomb made of stone.
"the Egyptian's paper"
the first pharaoh tht had a pyramid built for him, the step pyramid.
Djoser's architect and vizier that built the step pyramid.
The Egyptian's form of writing which included various symbols.
an ornament worn as a charm for protection against evil. ie: eye of horus
crook and flail
symbols of the pharaoh's power
"the city of the dead". The egyptian burial grounds. ie: The Valley of the Kings
waterfalls or rapids in rivers
large scale flooding
spiritual twin in the afterlife
your personality and spirit
Opening of the mouth ceremony
a ceremony that the priests conducted after someone had died to give the person the ability to speak, eat, and have full use of his/her body in the afterlife.
First pharaoh of Egypt
Built the second and third known pyramids, the bent pyramid and the red pyramid.
Snefru's son that wanted to outdo his father and built the largest pyramid the Great Pyramid.
Khufu's son that built the sphinx and one other pyramid a tiny bit smaller than his father's.
a stone box where the coffin is placed inside.
monumental sphinx / statue built by Khufu's son, Khafre.
symbolizes rule over both upper and lower egypt.
a period in Ancient Egyptian history tht lasted from about 2700 to 2200 B.C.
a period of time ruled by a specific family.
the heavenly and earthly realm and the pharaoh's job is to keep it balanced.
The regent to Thutmose the third and wife to Thutmose the second. Ships Thutmose the third off to military school and becomes the first female pharaoh.
Thutmose the third
The Napolean of Ancient Egypt because he expanded borders (into Nubia) and was a great warrior.
the creator god that was the most important in Thebes and Upper Egypt so he became the chief god.
The sun with extended hands that Akhenaten worshipped so exstensively.
The wife of Akhenaten and his main supporter. "The most beautiful woman in history."
Ramses' most famous temple.
The place off of Samalia and the Red Sea where Hapshetsut sent trading expeditions.
The temple where Amun was worshipped.
Group of people that came from Palestine and Syria and invaded Egypt. They had superior weapons like chariots, armor, and bows.
Small periods of time where Egypt was in turmoil and recovering before new main periods.
Or Amarna the changed capital of Egypt during the rule of Akhenaten.
The person that has full and equal power to the pharaoh while the next heir is underage.
the pharaoh's right hand man / second in command.
King Tut's regent and became pharaoh after Tut died.
King Tut's regent and became pharaoh after Aye.
An egyptologist and archaeologist that found King Tut's tomb and mummy.
Funded Howard Carter's trip to find King Tut's mummy.
One of the first cities of civilization.
One of the first cities of civilization and the city-state that Gilgamesh was king of.
God that's associated with the pharaoh.
Temple worshipping a single god. Priests enter to leave offerings and perform rituals for the god.
Temple representing a god and a special deceased pharaoh.
wealth sent from one country or ruler to another as a sign that the other is superior