English Midterm Review
|verbal||verb used as another part of speech|
|present participle|| used as adjective; present participle ends with "-ing"|
ex.: Moses saw the burning bush.
|past participle|| used as adjective; ends in "-d, -ed, -t, -g, -ng, -n"|
ex.: The burned toast tasted horrible.
|gerund|| ends in "-ing"; is a noun: used as a subject, predicate nominative, direct object, object of preposition, and rarely as indirect object or an appositive|
ex.: Running is tiresome. (subject)
ex.: I like running. (direct object)
ex.: His favorite activity is running. (pred. nom.)
ex.: Today is a good day for running. (obj. of prep.)
|infinitive|| is "to + a verb"; used as adjectives, nouns, and adverbs|
ex.: To run is my favorite hobby. (subject)
ex.: I like to run. (direct object)
ex.: His response was to shout. (pred. nom.)
ex.: I was about to run. (prep. phrase)
ex.: He is the man to see. (adjective)
ex.: I left to see the movie. (adverb)
and... NEVER put an adverb between the "to" and verb!!
|direct object|| comes after action verb; is a noun or pronoun|
answers questions: who or what
ex.: The pitcher threw the ball.
verb: threw (action verb)
direct object: ball (answers question: what)
|indirect object|| comes after action verb; comes before a direct object; is a noun or a pronoun|
answers questions: to whom, for whom; to what, for what
ex.: Tristan bought Hailey red roses.
verb: bought (action verb)
nouns after verb: Hailey, roses
direct object: roses (answers question: what)
indirect object: Hailey (answers question: for whom)
|predicate adjectives|| word that is linked to and describes the subject; comes after a linking verb; is an adjective|
ex.: Yogurt tastes delicious.
verb: tastes (linking verb)
predicate adjective: delicious (describes yogurt)
|predicate nominative/predicate noun|| word that is linked to and renames the subject; comes after a linking verb; is a noun|
ex.: Yogurt is a tasty, healthy food.
verb: is (linking verb)
predicate nominative/noun: food (renames yogurt)
|linking verb||verb that expresses being; links subject with a word in the predicate; includes helping, sense, and to be verbs|
helping verbs: have, has, had, do, does, did, can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should
sense verbs: look, smell, fell, appear, taste, become, grow, seem, remain, stay, turn (when it means become)
to be verbs: am, are, is, was, were, be, being, been
|action verb|| tells what subject has or does; can express physical or mental action |
physical action: run, look
mental action: think, dream
|helping verb|| helps complete the meaning of the main verb; one or more of these verbs with a main verb forms a verb phrase|
ex. of these verbs: have, has, had, do, does, did, can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should
|subject|| tells who or what the sentence is about; is a person, place, thing, or idea; is a noun or pronoun|
ex.: Bob is nice.
verb: is (linking verb)
predicate adjective: nice
|adverb phrase|| prepositional phrase that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb|
tells: when, where, how, how much, and/or why
ex.: We went on the ferry.
verb: went (action verb)
prepositional/adverb phrase: on the ferry
word adverb phrase modifies: went (tells: how)
|adjective phrase|| prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or pronoun|
tells: which one, what kind, and/or how many
ex.: Go to the beach near the road.
prepositional/adjective phrase: near the road
word adjective phrase modifies: beach (tells: which one)
|common noun|| names a general class of person, place, thing or idea; is a noun|
|proper noun|| names a particular person, place, thing, or idea; is a noun|
person: Mr. Gomez
thing: Statue of Liberty
|concrete noun|| refer to material things, to people, or to places; is a noun|
concrete: people, Mexicans, Mount Hood, book
|abstract noun|| names ideas, feelings, or qualities; is a noun|
abstract: love, relief, patriotism, language
|compound noun|| noun of two or more words|
compound: bookcase, headache, Edgar Alan Poe, commander in chief, father-in-law, stick-in-the-mud
|collective noun|| names a group or a collection of people, animals, or things considered as a unit; is a noun|
collective: crew, orchestra, committee, flock, fleet, group
|singular noun|| names one person, place, thing, or idea; is a noun|
singular: Selena, Santa, Spain, England, lead, guy, life
|plural noun|| names more than one person, place, thing, or idea; is a noun|
plural: children, Michaels, valleys, hills, roofs, safes, echoes
|possessive noun|| noun that shows ownership or relationship; always has an apostrophe|
possessive: Jade's scissors, dog's whiskers, workers' demands, Mike's address
|declarative sentence|| sentence that makes a statement; ends with a period|
declarative: I am tired.
|interrogative sentence|| sentence that asks a question; ends with a question mark|
interrogative: What is your name?
|imperative sentence|| gives a command or makes a request; ends with a period|
imperative: Sit down and be quiet.
|exclamatory sentence|| expresses a strong feeling; ends with an exclamation mark|
exclamatory: Ow, that hurt!
|simple sentence|| sentence that has one subject and one verb|
simple: He likes cake.
|compound sentence|| two sentences connected by a coordinating conjunction or a semicolon|
compound: She needs to tell him to stop cheating, but she doesn't want to ruin their friendship.
|complex sentence|| sentence that contains one clause and one sentence|
complex: Wearing his new polo, all the girls swooned over him.
|compound-complex sentence|| sentence that contains one clause and one sentence, as well as two other sentences connected by a conjunction|
compound-complex: When I have graduated from high school, will I be admitted into college, or will I have to wait until there is a place for me?
|adjective|| modifies a noun or pronoun|
answers questions: which one, what kind, or how many
ex.: He was strong and graceful.
verb: was (linking verb)
adjectives: strong, graceful
word adjectives modifies: he (answers question: which one)
|adverb|| modifies verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs|
answers questions: when, where, how, how much, why
ex.: He is quite popular.
verb: is (linking verb)
word adverb modifies: popular (answers: how)