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Ethnography is

the firsthand, personal study of local setting

Anthropology's comparative perspective focuses on both cultural and biological elements. This

allows the inclusion of biological and cultural approaches to comment or solve a particular issue or problem

Although rap music started in the US, it is now popular all over the world. Which of the following mechanisms of cultural change is responsible for this?

Diffusion

Ethnology is

the comparative, generalizing aspect of cultural anthropology

Indigenous people can do nothing to counter threats to their cultural identity, autonomy, and livelihood posed by globalization. T/F

False

According to anthropologists, cultures eventually become fixed and stop changing. T/F

False

President Obama's mother was a(n)

cultural and applied anthropologist

How are cultural rights different from human rights?

Cultural rights are vested in groups, not individuals

Which of the following statements about cultural relativism is not true?

Cultural relativism argues that come cultures are relatively better than others.

What is the term for cultural change that results when two or more cultures have continuous first hand contact?

Acculturation

Which of the following is not a distinctive feature of four field anthropology?

It has as exclusive focus on contemporary cultures

Biological anthropologists study all the following except

ancient languages

Which of the statements about anthropology is not true?

Anthropology's biological approach entails finding evolutionary explanations for all human behaviors

What distinction does Kottak draw between culture and society?

People share society-organized life in groups- with other animals but culture is distinctively human

The use of anthropological findings, concepts, and methods to accomplish a desired end is known as

applied anthropology

The study of past human behavior is called

archeology

Cultural relativism is a core value of American society. T/F

False

Which of the following is not one of the ways in which individuals learn culture?

Genetic transfusion

Which of the following statements about culture is not true?

Human groups differ in their capacities for culture

Anthropologists use the term society to refer to customs and traditions passed from generation through learning. T/F

False

The process by which children learn culture is known as

enculturation

Cultural relativists believe that a culture should be judged only according to the standards and traditions of that culture and not according to standards of other cultural traditions. T/F

True

Anthropology is a holistic discipline in that it

practice theory

An anthropologist is studying ethnic-religious conflict in contemporary Sri Lanka. She or he is most likely a(n)

...

Anthropologists study only non-western cultures. T/F

False

Enculturation refers to the process through which children learn culture. T/F

True

The Internet has hindered the process of globalization

False

Only people living in the industrialized, capitalist countries of western Europe and the US are ethnocentric

False

Linguistic anthropologists study how languages vary in time and space, and how language and culture influence each other T/F

True

The American Association's Code of Ethics is

designed to ensure that all anthropologists are aware of their obligations to the field of anthropology, the host communities that all them to conduct their research, and to society in general

In order to conduct research among a group of people, the anthropologist must

inform the people about the purpose, nature, and procedures of the research and its potential costs and benefits to them

The view that American Thanksgiving Day represents a postharvet festival like many other societies hold is

the etic view

When studying a culture today, anthropologists

must consider culture contact, external organizations, and power differentials and how they affect cultures

Taking part in events one is witnessing and describing is known as

participant observation

Which of the following is not a characteristic field technique used by ethnographers?

Telephone questionnaires

In survey research, what is sampling?

The collection of a representative sample of a larger population

The key cultural consultant provides the etic view of a culture T/F

False

In primate evolution, which of the following occurs?

None of the above

One of the primate characteristics we studied in class was related to locomotion. Which of the following is/are true?

The foramen magnum is located in a more centralized location if the primate is bipedal

As we discussed in class, the reduced number of primate offspring born at one time means

All except D

Dominance, as is found among all primates, serve as a meaning to

establish territorial boundaries

An objective statement uses quantitative data. T/F

True

A creation mythology may describe the way a people understand where they came from but anthropologists do not consider it to be a valid rendering of the people's past T/F

False

What term refers to the minimal sound contrasts that distinguish meaning in a language?

Phonemes

Which statement about nonhuman primate calls is not true?

Calls demonstrate linguistic productivity

The study of communication through body movements, stances, gestures, and expressions is called

Kinesics

What term refers to the arrangement and order of words in phrases and sentences?

Syntax

Linguistic displacement is

the ability to talk about things that are not present

What do sociolinguistics study?

Speech in its social context

Which of the following statements best describes the use of language by apes?

Apes can learn American Sign Language and have shown the capacity for cultural transmission, productivity, and displacement, although there is still a gap between human and other ape language capabilities.

The study of sounds used in speech is known as

phonology

All human nonverbal communication is instinctive and thus not influenced by culture. T/F

False

Historical linguistics deals with

long term change

Which of the following is a characteristic shared by most present-day foragers?

They live in marginal environments

All humans were foragers until approx

10,000 years ago

What term refers to the type of pastoral economy in which the entire group moves with the animals throughout the year?

Nomadism

If rights to land are passed on through descent groups, what type of adaptive strategy is most likely?

Nonindustrial food producing

Which of the following is associated with horticultural systems of cultivation?

Slash and burn techniques

Most modern foragers live in remote areas, completely cut off from other modern, agricultural, and industrial societies T/F

False

How do chiefdoms differ from states?

Chiefdoms lack socioeconomic stratification and stratum endogamy

Dari believe that more than one father is in the best interest of the child. Their reasons include

Both A and B

Which of the following was not traditionally used by the Inuit to handle disputes?

Courts of law

In band societies, what typically determines the amount of respect or status that an individual enjoys?

Culturally valued personal attributes

What is a big man?

A person of influence and prestige

What term do social scientists use to refer to the socially approved use of power?

Authority

What is the basis of political organization in states?

Monopoly of force by a central authority

A caste system is characterized by all the following except

upward or downward change in a person's social system

Which of the following does not describe the situation of the Yanomami?

The Yanomami are isolated from missionaries and the Venezuelan government and are self-sufficient

In order for a class system to be open, it must facilitate

vertical mobility

According to Weber, what is the base of social status?

Prestige

What is the name of the postmaritial residence pattern in which a married couple is expected to live in the husband's community?

Patrilocality

Which of the following statements about the incest taboo is true?

The incest taboo does not eliminate incest

Kottak argues that relatively high incidence of expanded family households among poor North Americans is

an adaptation to poverty

In matrilineal societies

Descent groups include only the children of the group's women

Rules of endogamy

tend to maintain social distinctions between groups

The gift that a wife's group gives to her husband's family is known as a

dowry

What is polygyny?

A situation where a man has more than one wife at a time

Why is polygyny a problem in Turkey?

Second wives are not protected by law as their marriages are not legal

Which of the following statements about polyandry is true?

It is a cultural adaptation to mobility associated with travel for trade, commence, and warfare.

Although the nuclear family is found in many societies around the world, it is not cultural universal T/F

True

Which of the following is not culturally constructed?

Sex

Biological differences between male and females, other than contrasts in breasts and genitals, is known as

sexual dimorphism

In which of the following statements about sexual orientation is not true?

Sexual orientation is genetically predetermined, and culture plays no role in its expression

In which of the following societies would you expect women's status to be highest?

A horticulture society experiencing considerable population pressure

According to Kottak, which of the following contributed to the emergence of the American notion that "a women's place is in the home"?

European immigration around 1900

Cross cultural studies indicate that

in most societies women tend to be the primary child givers

More than half of American households with incomes below the poverty line

are headed by women

A political system ruled by men in which women have inferior status is known as a

patriarchy

The fact that chimpanzees and other nonhuman primates engage in masturbation and same sex activity suggests that

flexibility in sexual expression is part of humans primate heritage

What is the current trend in India?

Women are working and living independently longer before marriage

Polytheism refers to

belief in multiple gods

Rites of passage usually consist of what phases?

Separation, liminality, and incorporation

Induction into the US Marine Corp and the Native American vision quest are examples of

Rites of passage

Witchcraft accusations are often aimed at

socially marginal people

What is communitas?

A feeling of great social solidarity, equality and togetherness

Which of the following statements about religions is not true?

Religion serves only to maintain social solidarity; it does not create or maintain social divisions

What kind of religion is most frequently found among foraging bands?

Shamanic

Religion is a cultural generality- that is, it is found in most, but not all, societies. T/F

False

Religion can be a powerful means of controlling society. T/F

True

Belief in mana or manalike forces is a primitive form of religion found only among tribal societies T/F

False

What fueled the European "Age of Discovery"?

European commercial interest in exotic raw material

Which of the following statements about world-system theory is not true?

It deals exclusively with the non-western, horticulture societies

What are the three positions that nations occupy in the world system?

Core, periphery, and semiperiphery

Which is not generally true of core nations?

They have less control over world finance than do semi periphery nations

Peripheral nations

have complex economies

According to Marx, who are the bourgeoisie and the proletoriat?

Distinct and opposed social classes in the capitalist economy

According to Marx, class consciousness results from

people's identification with groups based on common economic interests

Which of the following statements about the world system is not true?

It depends on each nation producing all that is needed by its own population

Which of the following is not true of 20th century industrialization?

It had tremendously beneficial effects on the economies, ecologies, and populations of "developing" nations

The political, social, economic, and cultural dominance of a territory and its people lay a foreign power for an extended period of time is known as

colonialism

The term indigenous peoples is used to refer to

the original inhabitants of particular territories

What term refers to the view that cultural diversity is something good and desirable?

Multiculturalism

What is the fastest growing ethnic group in the US?

Hispanics

What is the term for policies and practices that harm a group and its members?

Discrimination

What term refers to devaluing a group because of its assumed behavior, values, abilities, or attributes?

Prejudice

Which of the following is a major difference between Brazilian and American racial classifications?

In the US, social race is determined at birth and does not change, but in Brazil, racial identification can change from day to day

An examination of racial classifications around the world indicates that

the classification of racial types is an arbitrary, culturally specific process

"Race" is

culturally constructed

Which of the following about ethnicity is not true?

Unlike race, ethnicity derives from biological difference among human groups

Today scholars in many fields argue that "race" as it is understood in the US was a social mechanism to those populations brought together in colonial America, to include

All of the above

Historical research has shown that the idea of race has always carried more meanings than mere physical differences T/F

True

What term refers to changes that result when groups come into continuous firsthand contact?

Acculturation

The deliberate physical extinction of a group is known as

genocide

Westernization has often been described as a form of what kind of cultural change?

Acculturation

Which of the following statements about television is true?

It can enhance national cultural identity by diffusing the cultures within their own borders

What term refers to the rapid spread or advance of one culture at the expense of other cultures?

Cultural imperialism

Which of the following is one of the proofs given by scientists that the climate change is human driven?

The rise in CO2 in the atmosphere has correlated with the rise in surface temperatures

Which is the term that many scientists prefer instead of global warming to describe changes in the environment?

Climate change

What does Kottak say is the greatest obstacle to slowing climate change?

Meeting energy needs

What is the natural phenomenon that keeps the Earth's surface warm?

Greenhouse effect

Native Australians relate to the movie Rambo because

Native Australians see tribal ties and kin links between Rambo and the prisoners he was freeing

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