Marbury v. Madison
The first time judicial review had been used to declare a law was unconstitutional.
Schenk v. US
The First Amendment does not cover certain things like speaking against the war and things that are seen as clear dangers to the US; saying "fire" in a theater.
Feiner v NY
The First and Fourteenth Amendments don't cover things when they lead to rousing crowds and disturbing the peace.
Gitlow v. NY
First case to incorporate the Constitution to state cases and applied bill of rights to the states.
Brandenberg v Ohio
Freedom of speech does not include speech that is intended to cause harm or something illegal.
US v Nixon
The ruling that the executive can not withhold information unless it is a matter of nation security.
Tinker v. Des Moines School District
Symbolic speech is covered by the constitution.
Texas v. Johnson (1989)
Supreme Court rules that burning the American flag is a protected speech and is a valid form of protest.
Shaw v. Hunt (1996)
The ruling that the government cant gerrymander on racial basis even for minority protection.
Massachusetts v. EPA
Supreme Court ruling in favor of Massachusetts on their petition of the EPA on car emissions under the Clean Air Act
Buckley v. Valeo
The ruling that some parts of the FEC act are constitutional and some aren't and that money is a symbolic form of speech and one can't limit that.
Citizens v. FEC (2010)
Allows companies to fund independent broadcast
US v Lopez
The first care where a dispute between federal and state courts occurs in which the federal court got involved in something that they had no jurisdiction over.
Roth v. US
First of two cases that constitutes "obscene" and whether it is covered under the first amendment. First amendment does not cover sexually explicit stuff that helps society.
Miller v CA (1972-73)
Obscenity is not covered by the first amendment but 3 criteria are established to define obscenity: 1. whether it appeals the average community member. 2. whether it implies or describes several stuff. 3. Whether the whole work lacks literary, political, scientific, or artistic value.
FCC v. Pacifica Foundation (1978)
When things aren't obscene but inappropriate, they can still be regulated.
DC v. Heller 2008, McDonald v. Chicago 2010
Right of an individual to bear arms.
Dred Scott v. Sanford (1875)
The ruling that slaves are considered property and congress has no right on property and slaves can never be citizens.
Missouri ex Rel Gaines v. Canada (1938)
Supreme court ruled that they must accept him or establish a University of equal credits
Korematsu v. US (1944)
The ruling that it is constitutional to put people into interment cants when the US shores are threatened.
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
Established Separate but equal.
Heart of Atlanta Motel v. US
Can't discriminate in a public business.
UC Regents v Bakke (1977)
The declaration that race could be a criteria, but racial quotas were unconstitutional and race could not be the only criteria.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954-55)
Segregation was declared unconstitutional.
Epperson v. Arkansas (1928)
The ruling that states have the right to set curriculum but could not use religion.
Lemon v Kurtzman (1971)
Created a test for finding if a law violates the establishment clause: 1. Secular legislative purpose. 2. Effects that neither advance nor inhibit a religion 3. Can't foster excessive entanglement with religion.
Grutter v. Bollinger & Gratz v. Bollinger (2003)
The ruling that points could not be used to give under representative people advantages.
Parents v. Jefferson County Board of Education (2007)
It is unconstitutional for public schools to let kids in based on race.
Loving v. The Commonwealth of Virginia (1967)
The ruling that it is unconstitutional to prohibit the marriage of biracial couples.
Ricci v DeStefano
The ruling that it is unconstitutional to disregard a test because those who pass it are mainly white.
Minersville School v. Gobitis (1940) & West VA Board of Education Barnette (1943)
Laws that require kids to say the flag salute are unconstitutional.
Engel v. Vitale (1962)
Any prayer said in school is unconstitutional and a violation of the establishment clause.
Abbington v. Schemp (1963)
It is unconstitutional to have the recitation of the lords prayer and the bible in public schools.
Bowers v. Hardwick (1986)
Sodomy laws did not specify the sexuality but this case ruled that anti-sodomy laws were unconstitutional in heterosexual couples.
Lawrence & Garner v. Texas (1932)
Overturns all anti-sodomy laws (including same sex).
Powel v Alabama (1932)
In cases of capital offense, the state must provide a lawyer.
Betts v. Brady (1942)
Right to a lawyer under certain circumstances: judge is against you, you are young, illiterate, case is complicated.
Gideon v. Wainwright 1963
Court rules that you're always entitled to a lawyer in state crimes.
Escobedo v. Illinois (1964)
The right to a lawyer when being questioned.
Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
The prosecution in a case cannot uses statements from questioning unless they secure the 5th amendments rights, "Mirandized."
Everson v Board of Education (1947)
That the government can subsidized private schools for things that don't involve religion.
Sheppard v. Maxwell (1966)
That everyone is entitled to a speedy and public trial but not too public.
Hamdan v Rumsfeld (2006)
People arrested for terrorism are protected under the constitution.
Boumedien v. Bush (2008)
Enemy combatants are entitled to Habeas Corpus and a lawyer.
Olmstead v. US (1928)
Wiretapping does not amount to search and seizure so it is not protected by the 4th amendment.
Katz v. US (1937)
Reversed ruling in Olmstead v. US and says that people are protected from wiretapping not places.
Mapp v. Ohio (1961)
The exclusionary rule applied on the state level too.
Nix v. Williams (1984)
The inevitable evidence clause and the first exception to the exclusionary rule.
Furman v. Georgia (1972)
Death penalty must be given only when it fits the crime.
Gregg v. Georgia (1976)
Accepted death penalty providing there is accurate evidence. Caused the 2 step trial system.
Griswold v. Connecticut (1965)
Married couples had the right to use birth control.
Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education
Ruled that mandatory bussing to integrate schools is constitutional.
Palko v. Connecticut (1937)
Your trial cannot be appealed if you've been found not guilty.
Benton v Maryland (1964)
The ruling that double jeopardy applies to the states.
Webster v. Reproductive Services (1990)
The ruling that prohibiting government funds for abortions and testing viability of the baby after 30 weeks are constitutional.
Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992)
The ruling that parents having to know about a daughters abortion, and you must think about it for 24 hours before you get one were OK, but spousal notification violated the14th amendment and put a burden on the mother.
Gonzales v Cahart (2007)
The no abortion after 2nd trimester law is not unconstitutional because it only refers to one type of abortion, intact DNE, and that is was inhumane to do so after the first trimester.
Gonzales v. Planned Parenthood
Supreme court ruled the act was constitutional because it only applied to the intact DNE.
Roe v. Wade (1973)
During the first trimester, state cannot restrict abortions, second semester some restrictions, and third the state can do what ever it wants.
INS v. Chadha (1983)
Legislative Vetos are unconstitutional
Baker v. Carr (1962), Reynolds v. Sim (1962), Wesberry v. Sanders (1964)
Ruled that districts must be made by number, not size.