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remittances

the money migrants send home to family.

cyclic movement

involves shorter periods away from home, and has a closed route that is repeated annually or seasonally.

periodic movement

involves longer periods away from home, and involves temporary recurrent relocation.

migration

involves a degree of permanence; with migration, the "mover" may never return home.

activity spaces

a regular seqcuence of short moves within a local area.

nomadism

a type of cyclic movement, or movement along a definite set of places.

migrant labor

one type of periodic movement which involves millions of workers in the United States nd millions of workers world wide.

transhumance

a specilized form of periodic movement, a system of pastoral farming in which ranchers move livestock according to the seasonal availablity of pastures.

military service

another form of periodic movement, in a given year, as many as ten million U.S. citizens, including military personnel and their families, are moved to new locations where they will spend tours of duty that can last several years.

migration (2)

when movement results in permanent relocation across significant distances.

international migration

movement across country borders, also called external migration.

internal migration

migration that occurs within a single country's borders.

forced migration

involves the imposition of authority or power, producing involuntary miration movements that cannot be understood based on the theories of choice.

voluntary migration

occurs after a migrant weighs options and choices (even if desperately or not so rationally) and can be analyzed and understood as a series of options or choics that result in movement.

laws of migration

developed my Ernst Ravenstein, five laws that predict the flow of migrants.

gravity model

predicts interaction between places on the basis of their population size and distcance between them.

push factors

are the conditions and perceptions that help a migrant decide to leave a place.

pull factors

are the circumstances that effetively attract the migrant to certain locales from other places- the decision of where to go.

distance decay

the principle that prospective migrants are likely to have more complete perceptions of nearer places than of farther ones, which comfirms the notion that the intensity of human activity, process, or function declines as the distance from its source increases.

step migration

while migration streams appear on maps as long, unbroken routes, the fact that they actually consist of a series of stages.

intervening opportunity

the presence of nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away.

kinship links

when deciding where to go, a migrant is often pulled to placeswhere family and friends have already found success.

chain migration

when a migrant chooses a destination and writes, calls, or communicates through others to tell family and friends at home about the new place.

immigration waves

swells of migration from one origin to the same destination.

explorers

includes surveyors and cartographers, and played a major role in finally mapping the world.

colonization

a physical proccess where the colonizer takes over another places, putting its own government in charge snd either moving its people into the place or bringing in indentured outsiders to gain control of the people and the land.

islands of development

are places within a region or country where most foreign investment goes, where the vast majority of paying jobs are located, and where infrastructure is concentrated.

refugee

a person who has well-founded fear for being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion.

internal refugees

people who have been displced within their own countries.

international refugees

people who have crossed one or more international borders during their moved and have encamped in a country other than their own.

asylum

assitance, to which not all refugees are not entitled.

immigration laws

the obstacles placed in the way of immigrants that are legal.

quotas

the restrictions on the amount of immigrants from a certain country, region, or continent.

selective immigration

when individuals with certain backgrounds (criminal records, poor health, suversive activities) are barred from entering.

guest workers

another name for migrant laborers.

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