the rock is crystalline; minerals grains are too small to be visible without a magnifying lens or microscope
what best describes an aphanitic texture?
water expands as it freezes caussing the crack walls to be pushed apart
assume that water filling a crack in a rock undergoes cycles of freezing and melting. Which of the following statements is true?
it involves a major change in the mineral composition of the weathered material
which one of the following statements concerning mechanical weathering is not true
temperatures remain high as lowered pressures decrease melting temperatures
why would a plume of solid silicate rock rising slowly from deep in the mantle begin melting as it neared the base of the lithosphere
erosion is the process by which weathered rock and mineral particles are removed from one area and transported elsewhere
which one of the following statements best describes erosion
the extrusive magma cools quickly so the mineral grains do not have time to grow
lava flows are typically finer grained than intrusive igneous rock. Why?
warm temperatures, very moist
what two factors speed up rates of cheimcal reaction and weathering in rocks and soils
5% and 75%
sedimentary rocks account for about what percent of the earths outermost 10 km and area is covered by sedimentary rocks
chemical weathering of orthoclase feldspar
clay minerals, silica and dissolved potassium bicarbonate in the soil water are products of which process?
___ sadstone contains abundant feldspar, suggesting that the sand was derived by weathering and erosion of graniric bedrock
which one of the following is an important, mechanical weathering process for enlarging fractures and extending them deeper into large boulders and bedrock
a(n) ____ texture would be most unlikely to occur in an extrusive igneous rock forming from a lava flow
the colcanoes of Hawaii and Quaternary activity in yellowstone national park
which of the following is associated with deep mantle hot spots
which of the following sedimentary rocks would you expect to have originally been deposited by fast-moving streams
high viscosity and dissolved gas
____ tend to increase the explosive potential of a magma body beneath a volcano
the are situated in the interior of a larrge, pacific plate above a hotspot deep in the mantle
which of the following statements best desvribes the big Hawaiin volcanoes
when magma reaches the surface its dissoved has content increase
which one of the following statements is not true
rhyolite, andesite, bassalt
which one of the following shoes the correct order of decreasing magma viscosity
bedding or stratification
which is probably the single most important, original, depositional feature in sedimentary rocks?
in moist, temperate climates
in which area would weathering by frost wedging probably be most effective
the last minerals to crystallize on Bowens reaction series results in ingoeus rocks with a ___ composition
evaporates; chemical, sedimentary rocks
which of the following best describes bedded gypsum and halite
evaporate minerals are more soluble than calcite and quartz
which of the following describes the correct order for relative solubility of minerals in sedimentary rocks
Pockets of magmas can be formed by the melting of deep continental crust heated by the intrusion of other magmas. WHich of the following correctly describes this process
Rhyolite, andesite, basalt
which one of the following shows the correct order (left to right) of decreasing magma viscosity?
ewhat do pumice and obsidian have in common
_____ are usually the most abundant gases emitted during basaltic volcanism