Anatomy Ch. 9 & 10

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Muscles

Extension

angle of joint increases

Flexion

angle of joint decreases (bending knees)

Hyperextension

over extending the part past atomic position

Dorsiflexion

sole of foot goes upward

Plantar flexion

sole of foot goes downward

Abduction

movement of limb away from the body midline (raising arms)

Adduction

movement of limb toward body midline (lowering arms)

Rotation

turning of a bone around its own axis

Circumduction

moving a limb so that it moves in a circle (cone-like) pointy end of cone is the joint and is stationary

Pronation

palms face downward

Supination

palms face upward

Eversion

turning soles of feet outward

Inversion

turing soles of feet inward

Retraction

mandible moves inward

Protraction

mandible moves outward

Elevation

lifting body part

Depression

lowering body part

Opposition

touching thumb to each finger (most animals cannot do this)

Epimysium

dense regular connective tissue surrounding entire muscle

Perimysium

fibrous connective tissue surrounding fasicles

Fascicles

groups of muscle fibers

Endomysium

loose connective tissue surrounding each muscle fiber (cell)

Muscle fiber

cylindrical cell

Sarcolemma

cell membrane of muscle cell

Sarcoplasm

cytoplasm, contain glycosomes (glycogen storage) and myogloblin (oxygen storage)

Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

terminal cisternae store calcium on ends in sacs

Transverse Tubules

continued sarcolemma that penetrates into the cell

Triads

2 terminal cisternae of SR and 1 t tubule

Myofibrils

densely packed rod-like elements made of myofilaments (actin and myosin)

I Band

lightest in color, only in thin filaments between 2 sarcomeres, Z line is in it

A Band

length of the thick filaments

H Zone

lighter mid-region where filaments don't overlap (only thick filaments)

M Line

midline that holds adjacent thick filaments together

Sarcomere

part of muscle that contracts

Z lines/discs

protein that marks boundaries of sarcomeres and ends thin filaments, connects myofibrils to one another

actin

thin filament, twisted double strand protein, globular actin subunits on the strands where myosin heads attach during contraction

myosin

thick filament, 2 tails, heads: attach to actin during contraction

Hamstring: Biceps femoris

extends the leg at the knee

Gluteas medius

abducts thigh and rotates it medially

Gracilis

adducts thigh

Fibularus (peroneus) longus

plantar flexion and eversion of foot

Psoas major and iliacus

flexes the leg at the knee

Quadriceps femoris group

extends knee and flexes thigh at the hip

Sartorius

abducts thigh and rotates it laterally

Tibialis anterior

dorsiflexion and inversion of foot

Brachialis

flexes the forearm at the elbow

Coracobrachialis

flexes and adducts arm at the shoulder along with pectoralis major

Deltoid

abducts arm

Extensor carpi ulnaris

extends and abducts hand at the wrist

Flexor carpi ulnaris

flexes and adducts hand at the wrist

Flexor digitorum profundus

flexes distal joints of fingers 2-5

Infraspinatus

rotates arm laterally

Pectoralis major

pulls arm forward and across chest

Pectoralis minor

raises ribs in forceful inhalation or pulls scapula forward and downward

Rhomboideus major

raises and adducts scapula

Serratus anterior

used to thrust shoulder anteriorly, as when pushing something

Supinator

rotates forearm laterally

Pronator teres

rotates arm medially

Teres major

extends, adducts, and rotates arm medially

Triceps brachii

extends the forearm at the elbow

Gastrocnemius and soleus

plantar flexes foot

Flexor digitorum longus

plantar flexes, inverts foot, and flexes toes

Extensor digitorum longus

mover of toe extension

Subscapularis

chief medial rotator of humerus

Frontalis

raises eyebrows

Occipitals

pulls scalp back

Orbicularis oculi

closes eye

Orbicularis oris

closes lips

Buccinator

compresses cheek

Zygomaticus

raises corners of mouth upward (smile)

Platysma

tenses neck

Masseter

prime move of jaw

Temporalis

closes jaw and maintains resting position

Sternocleidomastoid

flexes and laterally rotates head

Scalenes

elevates top 2 ribs

Splenius

extends/hyperextends head

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