microscopic, independent, basic unit of structure, function, and life of an organism
types of cells
bacterial, plant, and animal
Robert Hooke (1635 - 1703)
1660: used compound microscope to look at cork slices and saw boxes ("small rooms") which he called cells
Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1635- 1703)
1673: used simple microscope to look at living things in pond and lake water
Matthias Schleiden (1804 - 1881)
1838: saw that all plants are made of cells
Theodor Schwann (1810 - 1882)
1839: saw that all animals are made of cells
Rudolph Virchow (1821 - 1902)
1855: saw mitosis - cells dividing to make more cells
The Cell Theory
1) all living things are made of cells
2) cells are the basic unit of structure of living things
3) all cells are made from other cells
holds organelles in cell, controls exit and entrance of particles
modifies and packages proteins for transportation in and out of the cell
the control center, holds all code for building new organelles, turning cells on and off
store water, salts, and sugar
breaks down sugars to provide energy for the cell - respiration occurs here
release chemicals that break down dead organelles, recycles worn out ribosomes
Endoplasmic Reticulum - ER
transports objects around the cell
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
no ribosomes, produces healthy fats, detoxifies dangerous substances, controls calcium in muscles
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
has ribosomes on it, which produce proteins
maintain INTERNAL cell structure, hold organelles in place
Use oxygen to neutralize toxins in the cell.
Scaffolding that holds the cell together.
Keeps EXTERNAL shape of the cell.
Stiff structure. Gives cell rigid shape and strength
Contains pigments called CHLOROPHYLL and Generates energy (sugar) from sunlight to using PHOTOSYNTHESIS.
Stores water, sugars and salts and when filled up it provides structure for the inside of the plant cell.
First step of the Scientific method
Make observations and questions
A statement or idea that tries to answer your question.
A hypothesis must always have
Should start with the phrase 'I think that...'
Statement should the words IF and THEN to explain the effect of one thing on another.
Second step of the Scientific method
Create a hypothesis
Third Step of the Scientific method
Create and experiment that can support or reject your hypothesis. Must be repeated a number of times.
Fourth Step of the Scientific method
Come up with a conclusion by analyzing your data from testing and check your data with your hypothesis.
Fifth Step of the Scientific method
Evaluate and Improve Hypothesis and Experiment
Sixth Step of the Scientific method
Once hypothesis is supported by experimentation, remove the phrase 'I think' from the statement. So you can convert your hypothesis into a theory.
Theory of spontaneous generation
Life can arise from non-living matter
The Cell Theory
All living things are composed of one or more cells. Cells are the basic UNITS of STRUCTURE and Organization in all living things. All cells are produced from other pre-existing cells.
The science that seeks to understand the living world.
Made of one cell
Made of many cells
Chemicals of Life
Water, protein, carbohydrates, fat, and DNA
change in the surroundings
Reaction/change in behavior
organisms and their environment
organisms become better suited to their surroundings.
Levels of organization in all living things
Atoms, molecules, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms, populations, communities, and biosphere