Chp. 26 Hormones and the Endocrine System

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adrenal cortex

The outer portion of an adrenal gland, controlled by ACTH from the anterior pituitary; secretes hormones called glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids.

adrenal gland

One of a pair of endocrine glands, located atop each kidney in mammals, composed of an outer cortex and a central medulla.

adrenal medulla

The central portion of an adrenal gland, controlled by nerve signals; secretes the fight-or-flight hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine.

adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

A protein hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete corticosteroids.

androgen

A steroid sex hormone secreted by the gonads that promotes the development and maintenance of the male reproductive system and male body features.

antagonistic hormones

Two hormones that have opposite effects.

anterior pituitary

An endocrine gland, adjacent to the hypothalamus and the posterior pituitary that synthesizes several hormones, including some that control the activity of other endocrine glands.

calcitonin

A peptide hormone secreted by the thyroid gland that lowers the blood calcium level.

corticosteroid

A family of hormones synthesized and secreted by the adrenal cortex, consisting of the mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids

diabetes mellitus

A human hormonal disease in which body cells cannot absorb enough glucose from the blood and become energy starved; body fats and proteins are then consumed for their energy. Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes results when the pancreas does not produce insulin; type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes results when body cells fail to respond to insulin.

endocrine gland

A ductless gland that synthesizes hormone molecules and secretes them directly into the bloodstream.

endocrine system

The organ system consisting of ductless glands that secrete hormones and the molecular receptors on or in target cells that respond to the hormones; cooperates with the nervous system in regulating body functions and maintaining homeostasis.

endorphin

A pain-inhibiting hormone produced by the brain and anterior pituitary; also serves as a neurotransmitter.

epinephrine

An amine hormone (also called adrenaline) secreted by the adrenal medulla that prepares body organs for action (fight or flight); also serves as a neurotransmitter.

estrogen

One of several chemically similar steroid hormones secreted by the gonads; maintains the female reproductive system and promotes the development of female body features.

glucagon

A peptide hormone, secreted by the islets of Langerhaus in the pancreas, which raises the level of glucose in the blood.

glucocorticoid

A corticosteroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that increases the blood glucose level and helps maintain the body's response to long-term stress.

goiter

An enlargement of the thyroid gland resulting from a dietary iodine deficiency.

gonads

A sex organ in an animal; an ovary or testis

growth hormone (GH)

A protein hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that promotes development and growth and stimulates metabolism.

hormone

(1) In animals, a regulatory chemical that travels in the blood from its production site, usually an endocrine gland, to other sites, where target cells respond to the regulatory signal. (2) In plants, a chemical that is produced in one part of the plant that travels to another part, where it coordinates certain plant activities.

hypoglycemia

An abnormally low level of glucose in the blood that results when the pancreas secretes too much insulin into the blood.

hypothalamus

The master control center of the system, located in the ventral portion of the vertebrate forebrain. The hypothalamus functions in maintaining homeostasis, especially in coordinating the endocrine and nervous systems; secretes hormones of the posterior pituitary and releasing hormones that regulate the anterior pituitary.

inhibiting hormone

A kind of hormone released from the hypothalamus that makes the anterior pituitary stop secreting hormone

insulin

A protein hormone, secreted by the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, that lowers the level of glucose in the blood.

mineralocorticoid

A corticosteroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that helps maintain salt and water homeostasis and may increase blood pressure in response to long-term stress.

neurosecretory cell

A nerve cell that synthesizes hormones and secretes them into the blood and also conducts nerve signals.

norepinephrine

An amine hormone (also called noradrenaline) secreted by the adrenal medulla that prepares body organs for action (fight or flight); also serves as a neurotransmitter.

pancreas

A gland with dual functions: The digestive portion secretes digestive enzymes and an alkaline solution into the small intestine via a duct. The endocrine portion secretes the hormones insulin and glucagon into the blood.

parathyroid glands

Four endocrine glands embedded in the surface of the thyroid gland that secrete parathyroid hormone.

parathyroid hormone (PTH)

A peptide hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands that raises blood calcium level.

pineal gland

An outgrowth of the vertebrate brain that secretes the hormone melatonin, which coordinates daily and seasonal body activities such as the sleep/wake circadian rhythm with environmental light conditions.

pituitary gland

An endocrine gland at the base of the hypothalamus; consists of a posterior lobe, which stores and releases two hormones produced by the hypothalamus, and an anterior lobe, which produces and secretes many hormones that regulate diverse body functions.

posterior pituitary

An extension of the hypothalamus composed of nervous tissue that secretes hormones made in the hypothalamus; a temporary storage site for hypothalamic hormones.

progestin

One of a family of steroid hormones, including progesterone, produced by the mammalian ovary. Progestins prepare the uterus for pregnancy.

prolactin (PRL)

A protein hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that stimulates different responses in different animals.

releasing hormone

A kind of hormone released from the hypothalamus that makes the anterior pituitary secrete hormones.

steroid hormone

A lipid made from cholesterol that acts as a regulatory chemical, activating the transcription of specific genes in target cells.

target cell

A cell that responds to a regulatory signal, such as a hormone.

testosterone

An androgen hormone that stimulates an embryo to develop into a male and promotes male body features.

thymus gland

An endocrine gland in the neck region of mammals that is active in establishing the immune system; secretes several hormones that promote the development and differentiation of T cells.

thyroid gland

An endocrine gland that secretes thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), and calcitonin.

thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

A protein hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete its hormones.

thyroxine (T4)

An amine hormone secreted by the thyroid gland that stimulates metabolism in virtually all body tissues. Each molecule of this hormone contains four atoms of iodine.

triiodothyrodine (T3)

An amine hormone secreted by the thyroid gland that stimulates metabolism in virtually all body tissues. Each molecule of this hormone contains four atoms of iodine.

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