Biology Flashcards

Created by JNooyen 

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Protein

an organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells

Amino Acid

basic building blocks of protein molecules

Monomer

a simple compound whose molecules can join together to form polymers

Polymer

large compound formed from combinations of many monomers

Nucleotide

building block (monomer) of nucleic acid polymers

Nucleic Acid

a long chain of smaller molecules called nucleotides

Ribosome

makes proteins

Chloroplast

site of photosynthesis

Nucleus

control center of the cell

Golgi Body Apparatus

Packages Proteins, receives Proteins, and sends them out

Cell Membrane

a thin membrane around the cytoplasm of a cell

Mitochondria

Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production

Dominant

trait that will show up in an organism's phenotype if gene is present

Recessive

trait that will only appear in the phenotype if organism inherits two of them; covered up by the dominant gene

Allele

one of two alternate forms of a gene that can have the same locus on homologous chromosomes and are responsible for alternative traits

Codominance

When neither of the traits can show as one. (Red flower with a white center)

Incomplete Dominance

blending together of two alleles

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics

Deletion

change to a chromosome in which a fragment of the chromosome is removed

Insertion

Change to a chromosome in which more is added to a fragment of the chromosome

Duplication

change to a chromosome in which part of the chromosome is repeated

Translocation

change to a chromosome in which a fragment of one chromosome attaches to a nonhomologous chromosome

Phenotype

The physical traits that appear in an individual as a result of its gentic make up.

Genotype

genetic makeup of an organism

Homozygous

having identical alleles at corresponding chromosomal loci

Heterozygous

having two different alleles for a trait

Gene Regulation

ability of an organism to control which genes are transcribed in response to the environment

Gene

(genetics) a segment of DNA that is involved in producing a polypeptide chain

Chromosome

a threadlike body in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order

Transcription

(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA

Translation

decoding of a mRNA message into a polypeptide chain

Meiosis

(genetics) cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms

Mitosis

cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes

Mutation

(biology) an organism that has characteristics resulting from chromosomal alteration

Enzyme

protein that acts as a biological catalyst

Eukaryote

organism whose cells contain nuclei

Prokaryote

unicellular organism lacking a nucleus

Cell

(biology) the basic structural and functional unit of all organisms

Organelle

a structure that carries out specific activities in the cell

Probability

the quality of being probable

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