Music History Exam 3

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Exam Three - 12/13/11

Io parto

Carlo Gesualdo - early 17th c. - madrigal - dissonant vs. consonant, chromatic vs. diatonic, emotion/dramatic - "before I part" after making love

Vedro 'l mio sol

Guilio Caccini - late 16th c. - solo madrigal - through-composed, not strophic, notated ornaments - played with figured bass - "I'll see the sun before I die."

L'Euridice: Nel pur ardor

Jacopo Peri - early 17th c. - earliest opera to survive - part 1 - wedding entertainment, powers of music - aria (air), tuneful rhythm, intro with sinfonia, drone sets rural setting

L'Euridice: Per quel vago boschetto

Jacopo Peri - early 17th c. - earliest opera to survive - part 2 - Dafne's speech, recitative, basso continuo support

L'Euridice: Non piango e non sospiro

Jacopo Peri - early 17th c. - earliest opera to survive - part 3 - Orfeo's recitative, dissonant grief, chromatic intensity

Toccata Arpeggiata

Kapsberger - early 17th c. - toccata (keyboard/plucked string, fast moving, light, imitative/fugal) - blocked chords for performer to play arpeggios, played on theorbo

L'Orfeo: Vi ricorda o boschi ombrosi

Claudio Monteverdi - early 17th c. - opera - aria/canzonetta, ritornello (violins, basso continuo, hapsichords) in beginning, Orfeo's happiness turning to joy (he won Euridice)

L'Orfeo: Ahi, caso acerbo

Claudio Monteverdi - early 17th c. - opera - dialogue in recitative - messenger crying over basso continuo, minor grief, chromaticism/tone changes, images,

L'Orfeo: Tu se' morta

Claudio Monteverdi - early 17th c. - opera - recitative - Orfeo's lament, build intensity with chromaticism and rhythm changes, quiet basso continuo building

Toccata n. 3

Girolamo Frescobali - early 17th c. - toccata - harpsichord, improvisatory style, figurations consistent but change often, contrasting moods/intensities, momentum

Sonata IV per il violino per sonar con due corde

Biagio Marini - early 17th c. - sonata - idiomatic writing -writing specific to one instrument and its abilities - 1st part is slow (like solo madrigal) above moving bass, 2nd part like an aria, 3rd part in triple meter - can add embellishments

Giasone: delizie contente

Franceso Cavalli - mid 17th c. - opera (most popular) - aria - Giasone's seeking sexual pleasure, neglecting to prepare for battle, his duties discussed

Giasone: Dell'antro magico

Franceso Cavalli - mid 17th c. - opera (most popular) - aria - Madea (witch) singing, provoke Pluto to protect Giasone while seeking Golden Fleece, chorus responds and give him magical ring - dance concludes the act

Lagrime mie

Barbara Strozzi - mid 17th c. - cantata (a multi-sectional secular work) - descending bass triple meter, dry text with delicate suspensions, dissonance, etc. - male poet tormented over lost love Lidia, lyrical sorrow

Jephte: Plorate colles

Giacomo Carissimi - mid 17th c. - oratorio (sacred piece resembled opera) - recitative - daughter's weep ("plorate"), flatting of notes, dissonant, recalls Florentine opera, emotional intensity

Jephte: Plorate filii Isaeal

Giacomo Carissimi - mid 17th c. - oratorio (sacred piece resembled opera) - chorus of lamentation - bass line descending, single/double,triple suspensions of grief

Saul, Saul, was verfolgst du mich

Heinrich Schutz - mid 17th c. - sacred concerto (six solo voices) - polychoral style, dissonant, downward leap/chromatics - Saul (Jew) fetch prisoners, heard voice of Christ

Cadmus et Hermione

Jean-Baptist Lully - mid 17th c. - opera - tragédie en musique - elements of comedy - Apollo as King Louis XIV slaying python, King Cadmus love for Hermione

Dido & Aeneas: When I am laid on earth

Henry Purcell - late 17th c. - opera - ground bass aria - lament, chromatic bass (descending perfect 4th) - bass ostinato, Dido about to die, tension, Italian style, grieving/sighing violins

Trio Sonata: mvt 1

Arcangelo Corelli - late 17th c. - trio sonata - Grave - serious, intense, profound - march of walking bass, violins chains of suspensions, leaps - 4/4

Trio Sonata: mvt 2

Arcangelo Corelli - late 17th c. - trio sonata - Allegro - fugal, imitation (bass first, then 2nd violin), variant of subject - 4/4

Trio Sonata: mvt 3

Arcangelo Corelli - late 17th c. - trio sonata - Adagio - passionate vocal duet, parallel thirds, triple-time (like sarabande), 3/2

Trio Sonata: mvt 4

Arcangelo Corelli - late 17th c. - trio sonata - Allegro - gigue dance, fugal imitation, stretto (close overlapping sections), top pedal point

Concerto for Violin & Orch. in a minor: Mvt 1

Antonio Vivaldi - early 18th c. - Violin concerto (fast, slow, fast) - Allegro - opening ritornello, driving, motoric rhythm

Concerto for Violin & Orch. in a minor: Mvt 2

Antonio Vivaldi - early 18th c. - Violin concerto (fast, slow, fast) - Largo - solo violin over sustained chords of orchestral violins/violas, dreamlike, different key

Concerto for Violin & Orch. in a minor: Mvt 3

Antonio Vivaldi - early 18th c. - Violin concerto (fast, slow, fast) - Presto 2/4 - melody in top violins, solo in 1st violin, very imitative

Suite in a minor: Prelude

Elisabeth-Claude Jacquet de la Guerre - late 17th c. - keyboard suite - no set meter, improvisational style like a toccata, arpeggiations - no repetitions, all explorational

Suite in a minor: Allemande

Elisabeth-Claude Jacquet de la Guerre - late 17th c. - keyboard suite - 4/4 with upbeat, moderate, contrapuntal voices, no longer danced

Suite in a minor: Courante

Elisabeth-Claude Jacquet de la Guerre - late 17th c. - keyboard suite - "running/flowing", triple/compound meter 3/2 or 6/8, metric ambiguity

Suite in a minor: Gigue

Elisabeth-Claude Jacquet de la Guerre - late 17th c. - keyboard suite - rapid footwork, fast compound meter, wide leap, fugal imitation

Suite in a minor: Menuet

Elisabeth-Claude Jacquet de la Guerre - late 17th c. - keyboard suite - simple dance, elegant couple-dance, triple meter, rounded binary form

6e Ordre: Les Baricades Mysterieuses

Francois Couperin - early 18th c. - rondeau (theme opens and comes back later, like refrain) - dance, uses "character" titles for his pieces - arranges pieces into "ordres", not suites - harpsichord, for amateurs

Hippolyte et Aricie: Quel Bruit! Quel vents, o ciel!

Jean-Philippe Rameau - early 18th. c - opera - orchestra, winds, flute depict wind and rain rapidly pulsating, monster coming out of the sea - chorus cries to Diana for aid: "what noise, winds, mountains of water"

Hippolyte et Aricie: Quelle plainte en ces lieux m'appelle

Jean-Philippe Rameau - early 18th. c - opera - monologue as recitative, chorus/orchestra echo her guilt - intensity, lightning, thunder -Phedre finds out Hyppolyte is dead, she feels like she is at fault, he is innocent -

Prelude & Fugue in a minor

Johann Sebastian Bach - early 18th c. - organ prelude and fugue - Vivaldi influence, violinistic figurations resemble concerto solos, ritornello-like alternates expositions

Nun Komm, de Heiden Heiland: Bewundert, o Menschen

Johann Sebastian Bach - early 18th c. - cantata - tenor de capo aria, melismatic, ABA form,

Nun Komm, de Heiden Heiland: Lob sei Gott, dem Vater, ton

Johann Sebastian Bach - early 18th c. - cantata - 4part chorale, moving 8th notes, orchestra doubles vocal lines

Giulio Cesare: V'adoro pupille

George Frideric Handel - early 18th c. - opera - aria, based on orchestral material - A section has no ritornello in between (constant Cleopatra singing, expressing love for Caesar) - French/Italian influence - Caesar interjects in awe

J.S. Bach

18th c. German composer and organist - established forms, such as the cantata and fugue, adapted forms/textures/styles from Italy/France - "Nun Komm, de Heiden Heiland" and "Prelude and Fugue in a minor",

Giulio Caccini

Member of Florentine Camerata, composer solo songs with continuo - strophic ones called arias, others called madrigals, wrote in embellishments "Vedre 'l mio sol"

Giacomo Carissimi

17th c. Italian composer - first significant composer of oratorio; developed recitative - "Jephte" (oratorio)

Francesco Cavalli

17th c. Italian composer - influential of public opera and use of basso continuo - dramatic effect and humor - "Giasone"

Arcangelo Corelli

Mid 17th-early 18th c. Italian violinist and composer - instrumental music for strings, double stops, beautify melodies, strict counterpoint - "Trio Sonata"

François Couperin

Mid 17th-early 18th c. French composer - brought Corelli's 'trio sonata' to France - wrote keyboard pieces which were grouped into 'ordres' - "6e" and "25e"

Girolamo Frescobaldi

Late 16th-early 17th c. Italian composer - wrote keyboard music, fast-note runs and imitations -expressiveness/improvisations - "Toccata n. 3"

Carlo Gesualdo

16th c. Italian composer of expressive, chromatic madrigals - chromaticism and detailed text expression/word painting - "Io parto"

G.F. Handel

Late 17th-early 18th German/British composer of operas/oratorios/anthems/concertos - de capo aria - good reputation amongst composers - "Giulo Cesare"

Elisabeth-Claude Jacquet de la Guerre

17th-18th c. French harpsichordist/composer, wrote French suites, performed for King Louis XIV - "Suite in A Minor"

Johannes Kapsberger

16-17th c. German-Italian composer development of theorbo/spontaneous changes/unusual rhythmic groupings - "Toccata arpeggiata"

Jean-Baptiste Lully

17th c. French composer to Louis XIV - refused Italian influence, known for liveliness/fast movements, basso continuo (driving force) - "Cadmus et Hermione"

Luca Marenzio

16th c. Italian composer of late Renaissance - madrigals, word-painting, chromaticism - "Solo e pensoso"

Biagio Marini

17th c. Italian violinist/composer - wrote for solo accompanied, expanded range - "Sonata IV"

Claudio Monteverdi

16th-17th c. Italian composer - "inventor of opera" - combine music/drama; combine Renaissance polyphony and baroque basso continuo; madrigal rule-breaking - "Crud' Amarilli" and "L'Orfeo"

Jacopo Peri

16th-17th c. Italian composer - period between Renaissance and Baroque - wanted to recreate Greek tragedy - "L'Euridice"

Henry Purcell

17th c. English Baroque composer - native composer, incorporated Italian/French stylistic elements, but devised English style; wrote for girl's boarding school - "Dido & Aeneas"

Jean-Philippe Rameau

17th-18th c. French Baroque composer of opera - modern theory of harmony (treatise) - new use of harmony attack by Italian supporters; followed Lully - "Hippolyte et Aricie"

Heinrich Schutz

17th c. German composer applied monody (Italian) style to church music (German taste/language) - imitation/intense dissonance - "Saul, Saul, was verfolgst du mich"

Barbara Strozzi

17th c. Italian composer - secular vocal music, many of her texts written by her father - "Lagrime Mie"

Vivaldi

17th-18th c. Italian baroque composer - wrote sacred and secular vocal and instrumental music, concertos,

Recitative

A vocal solo in opera, cantatas, and oratorios that declaims the text in a sung-speech manner, in free rhythm with minimal accompainment.

Aria

Late 16th-early 17th c. Italian strophic poem for a solo singer -- a lyrical monologue in an opera, cantata, or oratorio

De Capo Aria

Aria that opens with 2 contrasting sections, A & B. At the end of the B section, the singer and orchestra return to the beginning of the A section (with embellishments)

Basso Continuo

System of notation in which an instrumental bass line is written out on one or more players of keyboard, lute, or similar instruments to fill in the harmony with appropriate chords or improvised melodic lines.

Figured Bass

Baroque practice consisting of an independent bass line that often includes numerals indicating the harmony to be supplied by the performer.

Monody

Early Baroque genre in which a few instruments accompanied a solo singer performing a song based on a highly charged, emotional text

Sacred Concerto

In the seventeenth century, a composition on a sacred text for one or more singers and instrumental accompaniment.

Concerted Style

Genre or style of music in which groups of instruments or voices share a melody, usually in alternation, and almost always over a basso continuo.

Madrigal

In the 17th century madrigal, two separate trends can be identified: the solo madrigal, which involved a solo voice with basso continuo, and madrigals for two or more voices, also with basso continuo

Monodic Madrigal

Popular madrigal arranged for solo voice ex. "Vedro 'l mio sol"

Prima Prattica

Monteverdi's term for the style and practice of 16th c. polyphony. in contradiction to the seconda prattica

Seconda Prattica

Monteverdi's "second practice"- named this when conservative contemporaries attacked his use of dissonance as improper to the contrapuntal style

Florentine Camerata

An important group of musical amateurs who met to discuss the revival of the Greek dramatic style. - Peri, Caccini

Oratorio

Musical composition, usually on a religious theme, for solo voices, chorus, and orchestra - ex. "Jephte"

Cantata

Form of Lutheran church music in the 18th century combining poetic texts with texts drawn from chorales or the BIble, including recitatives, arias, choral settings, usually for one or more choruses ex. "Nun Komm, de Heiden Heiland"

Chaconne

Variations over a ground bass (slow, triple meter)

Toccata

Baroque musical composition (usually for a keyboard instrument) with full chords and rapid elaborate runs in a rhythmically free style ex. "Toccata n. 3" and "Toccata Arpeggiata"

French Overture

Type of overture used in tragedie en musique and other genres, that opens with a slow, homophonic, and majestic section, followed by a faster second section that begins with imitation

Notes Inégals

French performance practice in which some notes with equal written time values are performed with unequal durations, usually as alternating long and short

Suite

Multi-movement work made up of a series of contrasting dance movements, generally all in the same key. ex. "Suite in a minor"

Prelude

Introductory piece for solo instrument, often in the style of an improvisation, or introductory movement in a multimovement work such as an opera or suite. ex. Bach's "Prelude & Fugue in a minor"

Allemande

Stylized dance in binary form - moderately fast quadruple meter with almost continuous movement, beginning with an upbeat. Usually the first dance in a suite. ex. "Suite in a minor: Allemande"

Courante

Dance in binary form - in triple meter at a moderate tempo and with an upbeat, running/gliding steps - 3/2 to 6/4 ex. Suite in a minor: Courante

Sarabande

Slow dance in binary and in triple meter, often emphasizing the second beat - Spanish flare, accent on beat two - 3/2 or 3/4

Gavotte

Duple-time dance in binary form, with a half-measure upbeat and a characteristic rhythm of short-short-long.

Menuet

Elegant dance in slow, triple time, usually the 3rd movement in a suite - ex. "Suite in a minor: Menuet"

Ritornello

In Italian, refrain; a repeated section of music usually played by the full orchestra, or tutti, in baroque compositions.

Trio Sonata

Written for two solo melodic instruments and basso continuo (sometimes made of 2 instruments, 4 total)

Character Piece

Short work, usually for solo piano, that depicts or suggests a mood, personality, or scene. Often published in collections, and given a loosely evocative title.

Lutheran chorale cantata

a genre of sacred vocal music that employs the text and tune of a pre-existing Lutheran chorale in all or several of its movements

prelude & fugue

Two part pieces, written by Bach, played on organ. Slow virtuosic intro, multi-part fugue.

Well-Tempered Clavier

Two sets of 24 preludes and fugues for a solo keyboard instrument. Preludes and fugues are written in all 12 major and 12 minor keys

tragedy in music

Florentine Camerata - Members of the Camerata wanted to create a new vocal style based on the music of the ancient Greek tragedies. Most early baroque operas were based on Greek mythology and ancient history.

lament bass

A descending tetrachordal basso ostinato employed as a musical signifier of grief ex. "Dido & Aeneas: When I am laid on earth"

theorbo

Large Lute with extra bass strings, used especially in the 17th c. for performing basso continuo as accompaniment to singers or instruments.

Cremona

Builders of the new family of string instruments that replaced the viol family of the Renaissance worked in this place in Italy.

masque

17th c. English entertainment involving poetry, music, dance, costumes, choruses, and elaborate sets, originated in the French court ballet.

court ballet

17th century French genre, an extensive musical-dramatic work with costumes, scenery, poetry, and dance that featured members of the court as well as professional dancers

semi-opera

a spoken play in which the more exotic, amorous and supernatural moments in the plot were sung and danced

ground bass aria

he entire melody is set over a repeated pattern in the bass ex. "Dido & Aeneas: When I am laid on earth"

accompanied recitative

Recitative that uses orchestral accompaniment to dramatize the text.

chorale

strophic hymn in the luthern tradition intended to be sung by the congregation, polyphonic, sacred, german

text-painting

the compositional technique of having the musical sounds reinforce the words being sung.

ornamentation

note or notes added to the original melodic line for embellishment and added interest

improvisation

Creation of a musical composition while it is being performed, seen in Baroque ornamentation

Monteverdi-Artusi conflict

Artusi favored the prima practica, with strict counterpoint/dissonant rules, while Monteverdi favored the seconda practica, where counterpoint rules could be broken and text dominated over the music.

Public opera

Opera performance aimed for public audiences; profit driven; audiences "taste" considered, more singing and dancing

Private opera

Not for commission, performed in the courts; recitative more plot related, aria more strophic, real "stuff" and more emotions

French recitative style

Recitative style that focused on frequent meter changing, agitated rhythmic changes to accommodate text expression

Italian recitative style

Recitative style in which the words could be clearly understood, the rhythms of natural speech would be followed, and the music would convey the feeling of a whole passage

Crud' Amarilli

Claudio Monteverdi - late 16th c. - madrigal - bitter "love" with dissonances, breaking counterpoint rules

tragédie en musique

French 17th and 18th c. form of opera, pioneered by Jean-Baptiste Lully, that combined the French classic drama and ballet traditions with music, dances, and spectacles.

25e Ordre: La Visionnaire

Francois Couperin - early 18th c. - keyboard suite - like a French overture, slow first section, fast second section - majestic part moves into allemande style

Solo e Pensoso

Luca Marenzio - late 16th c. - madrigal - chromatic top voice, sensitive musical imagery - poet wandering in the fields (jagged melody with semitones) - lines becoming more complex

Gigue

Stylized dance movement of a standard suite - binary form, marked by fast compound meter such as 6/4 or 12/8 with wide melodic leaps and continuous triplets. The two sections usually both begin with imitation.

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