French protestant dissenters, granted limited toleration under the Edict of Nantes, after King Louis XIV outlawed protestantism, many of these fled to British North America.
Edict of Nantes
(1598) Issued by French crown granting limited toleration of French protestants, ended religious wars in France until it was repealed in 1685.
King William's War
(1689-1697) War fought largely between french trappers, British settlers and their respective native allies.
Queen Anne's War
(1702-1713) Second in a series of conflicts between European powers for control of North America, fought between the English and French in the north and the English and Spanish in the south.
Unofficial policy of relaxed royal control over colonial trade and only weak enforcement of Navigation Laws.
War of Jenkin's Ear
(1739) Small scale clash between Britain and Spain in the Caribbean and Georgia.
King George's War
British colonists against the French in the north, lead to conflict between New England settlers and the British government.
George Washington (early)
Lieutenant Colonel of Virgina sent to the Ohio country with militiamen to secure Virginia's claims, lost in battle with the French.
French residents of Nova Scotia, uprooted by the British in 1755 and scattered as far south as Louisiana.
French and Indian War (Seven Year's War)
(1754-1763) Nine-year war between the British and the french in North America, resulted in the expulsion of the French and sparked the Seven Year's War in Europe.
"Join, or die"
Posted in the Pennsylvania gazette by Benjamin Franklin to encourage unity and bolster the common defense against France.
(1754) Intercolonial congress summoned by the British government to foster greater colonial unity and assure Iroquois support in the escalating war against the French.
General Edward Braddock
General who set out in 1755 to capture Fort Duquesne, was attacked by the French and Indians and was defeated.
"The Great Commoner", leader in the London government, selected young energetic militia leaders, planned the attack on the Quebec-Montreal area.
Battle of Quebec
(1759) British victory over French forces on the outskirts of Quebec. The surrender of Quebec marked the beginning of the end of French rule in North America.
Waged by Ottawa chief Pontiac to drive the British out of Ohio. Crushed by British troops who resorted to distributing blankets infected with smallpox to put down the rebellion.
Proclamation of 1763
Decree issued by parliament in the wake of Pontiac's uprising, prohibiting settlement beyond the Appalachians, contributed to rising resentment of British Rule.
Economic theory that closely linked a nation's political and military power to its wealth. Generated favored protectionism and colonial acquisition as a means to increase exports.
Political theory of representative government, based on the principle of popular sovereignty, with a strong emphasis on liberty and civic virtue. (selflessness, self-sufficiency, courage and an appetite for civic involvement).
Eighteenth century British political commentators who agitated against political corruptions and emphasized the threat to liberty posed by arbitrary power. Made colonists alert to encroachment on their rights.
Sugar Act of 1764
Duty on imported sugar from the West Indies. First tax levied on the colonists by the crown. It was lowered in response to widespread protests.
(1765) Required colonies to provide food and quarters for British troops. Many colonists saw it as an encroachment on their rights.
Prime minster who aroused the resentment of the colonists by ordering the British navy to strictly enforce Navigation laws. He also imposed the sugar act, the quartering act and the stamp tax.
Used to try offenders for violating Navigation Laws, colonists argued the courts encroached on their rights as Englishmen since they lacked juries and placed the burden of proof on the accused.
Stamp Act Congress
(1765) Assembly of delegates from 9 colonies who met in New York City to draft a petition for the repeal of the stamp act. Helped ease sectional suspicions and promote intercolonial unity.
Boycotts against British goods adopted in response to the Stamp Act. Most effective form of protest against British policies in the colonies.
Sons and Daughters of Liberty
Patriotic groups that played a central role in agitating against the stamp act and enforcing non-importation agreements.
(1766) Reaffirmed Parliament's unqualified sovereignty over the North American colonies. (Right after the repeal of the Stamp Act).
A lawyer and popular essayist, advocated a middle-of-the-road response to the new British revenue act of the 1760s that appealed to most colonists at the time. Wrote "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania".
Indirect levies on glass, white lead, paper, paint and tea. Proceeds were used to pay colonial governors, sparked another round of protests in the colonies.
(1770) Clash between unruly Bostonian protestors and locally stationed British redcoats, who fired on the jeering crowd, killing or wounding 11 citizens.
Powerfully built runaway "mulatto", leader of the mob in the Boston Massacre, one of the first to die.
Lord Fredrick North
Corrupt Prime Minister of George III who persuaded parliament to repeal the Townshend revenue duties. Granted a monopoly of the tea industry to the East India Company.
Master propagandist and engineer of rebellion, ultra-sensitive to infractions of colonial rights, deep faith in the common people.
Committees of Correspondence
Local committees established across Massachusetts, and later in each of the 13 colonies, to maintain colonial opposition to British policies through the exchange of letters and pamphlets.
Boston Tea Party
(1773) Rowdy protest against the British East India Company's newly acquired monopoly of the tea trade. Colonists, disguised as Indians, dumped 342 chests of tea into Boston Harbor, prompting harsh sanctions from British parliament.
(1774) Series of punitive measures passed in retaliation for the Boston Tea Party closing the post of Boston, revoking a number of rights in the Massachusetts and expanding the quartering act to allow for the lodging of soldiers in private homes. Colonists, in response, boycotted British goods.
(1774) Allowed French resident of Quebec to retain their tradition political and religious institutions, extended the boundaries of the providence southward. Colonists mistakenly thought it was part of parliament's response to the Boston Tea Party.
First Continental Congress
(1774) Delegates from 12 of 13 colonies that convened in Philadelphia to craft a response to the intolerable acts. Called for a complete boycott of British goods.
One of the men sent to the First Continental Congress, said "give me liberty or give me death!".
Played a large role in the First Continental Congress, helped defeat a proposal by the moderates for a species of American home rule under British direction.
(1774) Non-importation agreement crafted during the First Continental Congress calling for the complete boycott of all British goods.
Lexington and Concord
First battles of the Revolutionary War, fought outside of Boston. Colonial militia successfully defended their stores of munitions, forcing the British to retreat to Boston.
Members of teams of select men from the American colonial partisan militia. They provided highly mobile, rapidly deployed forces that allowed the colonies to respond immediately to war threats.
Marquis de Lafayette
Wealthy French nobleman who gave to the American Military service and $200,000 of his private funds.
Encampment where George Washington's poorly equipped army spent a freezing winter. Hundreds of men died and more that a thousand deserted. It reflected the weakness of the American army.
Second Continental Congress
Representative body of delegates from all 13 colonies, drafted the Declaration of Independence and manged the colonial war effort.
(1775) Fought on the outskirts of Boston on Breed's Hill. The battle ended in the colonial militia's retreat, though at a heavy loss to the British.
Olive Branch Petition
Conciliatory measure adopted by the continental congress, professing American loyalty and seeking an end to the hostilities, king George rejected the petition and proclaimed the colonies in rebellion.
Thomas Paine's pamphlet urging the colonies to declare independence and establish a republican government. It helped convince colonists to support the revolution.
Declaration of Independence
(1776) Formal pronouncement of Independence drafted by Thomas Jefferson and approved by congress. The declaration allowed Americans to appeal for foreign aid and served as an inspiration for later revolutionary movements worldwide.
Battle of Long Island
Battle for the control of New York. British troops overwhelmed colonial militias and retained control of the city for most of the war.
General William Howe
Washington's adversary, didn't crush the American forces and was not a military genius.
Decisive colonial victory in upstate New York, which helped secure french support for the revolutionary cause.
Sample treaty drafted by the continental congress as a guide for American diplomat. It expressed American's desire to foster commercial partnerships rather than political or military entanglements.
Loose alliance of nonbelligerent naval powers, organized by Russia's Catherine the Great, to protect neutral trading rights during the American war for independence.
American commander, turned traitor in 1780. Ambitious, greedy and very full of himself, he plotted with the British and sold out West Point on the Hudson River.
General Nathanael Greene
A Quaker-reared tactician who distinguished himself by his strategy of delay (standing and then retreating, exhausting the foe)
Treaty of Fort Stanwix
Treaty signed by the U.S. and the pro-British Iroquois granting Ohio country to the Americans.
George Rogers Clark
Frontiersman, wanted to seize British forts in Illinois by surprise, went down the Ohio river and captured 3 forts.
Privately owned armed ships authorized by congress to prey on enemy shipping during the Revolutionary War. More numerous than the American navy, inflicted heavy damage on British shippers. Diverted manpower from the main war effort and involving Americans in speculation and graft, also brought in gold.
George Washington with the aid of the French army, besieged Cornwallis at Yorktown, while the french naval fleet prevented British reinforcements from coming ashore. Cornwallis surrendered, dealing a heavy blow to the British war effort and paving the way for eventual peace.
Admiral de Grasse
French guy who advised the Americans that he was free to join them with an assault on Cornwallis at Yorktown.
Treaty of Paris
(1783) Peace treaty signed by Britain and the U.S. ending the Revolutionary War. British formally recognized American independence and ceded territory east of Mississippi, Americans promised to restore loyalist property and repay debts to British creditors.
"The Social Contract", the country is made by the people and is for the people and the people have the power to overthrow a corrupt government.
Princeton and Trenton
Colonists attacked the British by surprise and won, which boosted their morale.
Government official in Massachusetts who lead the anger of the acts, he said "No taxation without representation!". (represents colonists)
Governor of Massachusetts who enforced acts. His house was burned down because of colonial opposition to the acts. (represents British)