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marx

founder of modern communism

cromwell

1649-1653. wanted to create a constitutional government with full religious freedom for all faiths. dissolved parliament. undertook to rule england alone. attempted to force puritan ideals on the nation by authoritarian rule. dictatorship ended with his death.

locke

English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience (1632-1704)

rousseau

French philosopher and writer born in Switzerland, believed people in their natural state were basically good but that they were corrupted by the evils of society, especially the uneven distribution of property

richelieu

architect of French absolutism who was prominent church official, served as chief minister to King Louis XIII from 1624- 1642, worked to undermine power of nobles and enhance that of the king, built large bureaucracy, attacked French Calvinists

philip ii

son of Louis VII whose reign as king of France saw wars with the English that regained control of Normandy and Anjou and most of Poitou (1165-1223)

henry viii

English king who created the Church of England after the Pope refused to annul his marriage (divorce with Church approval)

martin luther

German theologian who led the Reformation

brueghel

Flemish painter of landscapes (1525-1569)

socrates

philosopher who believed in an absolute right or wrong; asked students pointed questions to make them use their reason, later became Socratic method

voltaire

French writer who was the embodiment of 18th century Enlightenment (1694-1778)

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