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last 3 tests

the citizen responders first step in an emergency is

recognizing that an emergency exists

true or false: the most important thing you can do in an emergency is give first aid or CPR

false

reasons that people hesitate or do not act after recognizing an emergency are called

barriers to action

list 3 ways how bystanders could help you at the scene of an emergency even if thy do not know first aid?

1. call 9-1-1
2. clear the scene
3. give an valuable information, such as, what happened or if they know the person, their medical history.

the correct order of the three basic steps you should take in handling an emergency with an adult victim are

check the scene and victim, call 9-1-1, then care for the victim

how can bystanders be helpful to you while you are checking the scene?

they can assist by calling 9-1-1 ir retrieving first aid supplies

true or false: calling 9-1-1 or the local emergency number is the first step you should take in any emergency

false

one piece of information that is necessary to give the EMS call taker is

the exact address or location of the injured victim(s)

you come upon the scene of an emergecny. there is an unconscious adult and a conscious child. how would you obtain consent to care for both of these victims?

Adult- you have consent already since they are unconscious.
child- ask their parent(s), if they aren't around you have consent.

an unconscious victim

is assumed to give consent to be cared for.

pathogen

a disease-causing agent (also called a microorganism).

injury

damage that occurs when the body is subjected to an external force, such as a blow

first aid

immediate care given to a victim of injury or sudden illness

emergency

a situation requiring immediate attention

sudden illness

a physical condition requiring immediate medical attention

describe two steps you can take to minimize the risk of disease transmission between you and the victim.

1. wear disposable gloves
2. cover your cuts before giving help

in general, good samaritan laws protect

citizen responders who willingly give first aid without accepting anything in return

why is it important not to move a victim from the scene unless there is immediate danger?

moving a victim can lead to further injury

list 3 situations in which an emergency move of a victim is necessary

1. fire
2. gas leak
3. flooding

which two emergency moves may be used for an unconscious victim?

pack-strap carry and clothes drag

which emergency move is most appropriate for moving a victim with a head, neck or back injury

clothes drag

the body cavity that contains the lungs is the

thoracic cavity

the body cavity in which organs are the most vulnerable to injury because of a lack of protection from surrounding bones is the

abdominal cavity

the beat of the heart felt at the neck or wrist is called a

pulse

true or false: brain cells, like other cells in your body, will grow back if they are damaged

false

respiratory system (function)

supplies the body with oxygen through breathing

musculoskeletal system (function)

supports and protects most body cavities

nervous system (function)

carries electrical impulses throughout the body

integumentary system (function)

protects the body from pathogens

circulatory system (function)

transports oxygen throughout the body

if the respiratory system fails, which other body system will eventually fail?

all body systems

an easy way to tell if a victim is conscious and shows signs of life is to

ask the victim a question

list the 5 conditions that are considered life threatening

1. no pulse
2. not breathing/trouble breathing
3. heart attack
4. unconcious
5. external bleeding

the check step in check, call, care is a check for safety and a check for

consciousness

true or false: a conscious victim who has a heartbeat and signs of life can have a life-threatening emergency

true

a victim who is unconscious and lying on his or her back could stop breathing if his or her

tongue falls to the back of his or her throat

open an unconscious victims airway by

pushing down on the forehead with one hand while using the other hand to pull up on the bony part of the jaw, lifting the chin.

true or false: a victim whose heart has stopped beating will also have stopped breathing

true

a person has been injured in a bicycle crash. you decide to help. the victim is conscious and appears to be cooperative. you identify yourself and gain the victims consent. what three important questions should you ask the victim?

1. what happened
2. any allergies
3. any medical conditions

you are alone with an unconscious victim. you must leave the victim to call 9-1-1. describe what you should do before leaving the victim.

put the victim on their side. one arm will be stretched out under their head. the other arm will be placed underneath their head, kind of like they are laying down to sleep. one leg will be bent. their head must be facing down when laying on their arms, incase they begin to vomit while you're gone.

how does the body initially respond to severe bleeding?

the body attempts to maintain an oxygen-rich blood flow to the vital organs

severe bleeding is life threatening because

too little oxygen is carried to the vital organs

you are caring for a victim who is bleeding from a wound on one arm. you have applied direct pressure to the wound, and placed a pressure bandage on the wound. unfortunately, the bleeding continues and the pressure bandage is now soaked with blood. what should you do?

apply an additional pressure bandage to absorb the blood and elevate the wound.

identify the correct order of steps when caring for a victim who is bleeding.

elevate the wound, apply direct pressure to the wound, apply a pressure bandage, then (if necessary) compress an artery at a pressure point.

you are caring for a victim who is bleeding, but you do not have a pair of disposable gloves to wear. what are TWO ways you could improvise to protect yourself while giving care?

1. have the victim hold/ put pressure on their wound.
2. cover any cuts you have with a bandage and make sure to wash your hands immediatly after giving care.

some of the signals of internal bleeding include soft tissues that are tender, swollen or hard; rapid or weak pulse and anxiety or restlessness. what are THREE other signals of internal bleeding?

1. nausea
2. bruising
3. excessive thirst

true or false: a severe headache may be signal of internal bleeding

true

you are caring for a victim of an automobile accident. the victim is complaining of pain in her abdomen, nausea and extreme thirst. she also has a pulse that is rapid and weak. what might you suspect is happening with this victim?

internal bleeding

one of the major functions of blood is to

help maintain a constant body temperature

arterial bleeding

bright red, spurting blood

venous bleeding

dark red, flowing blood

external bleeding

visible blood in any amount

internal bleeding

discoloration of the skin

capillary bleeding

oozing blood

true or false: shock occurs when an adequate amount of fluid is circulating to the vital organs.

false

which of the following is most likely to cause shock?

a severe allergic reaction

which is a signal of shock?

a rapid, weak pulse

list THREE common signals of shock

1. dazed, confused
2. moist looking skin
3. rapid, weak pulse

minor bleeding, such as that from a small cut or scrape, usually stops by itself within about how many minutes?

5-10

why do you elevate the legs of a person who is in shock?

to help keep blood flow towards vital organs (around 12 inches)

why does the heart beat faster when a person is in shock?

to compensate for inadequate blood flow

you should call 9-1-1 or the local emergency number for a person in shock

always because first aid alone cannot control shock

abrasion

skin rubbed or scraped away

avulsion

skin partially torn away from the skin

puncture wound

skin closes around a penetrating object

laceration

skin cut and usually bleeding freely

amputation

skin completely severed from the body

an occlusive dressing may be made from

clean plastic wrap

proper care for a closed wound may include applying

direct pressure, elevation and ice

major open wound

cover with dressing and pressure bandage

a severed body part

wrap in a dressing, place in plastic bag and place on ice

a minor heat burn

cool the area to prevent further damage

minor open wound

wash with soap and water

an embedded object

place bulky dressing around the wound to stabilize

when a victim has an embedded object, you should control severe bleeding by

bandaging dressings around the object

a student was playing a sport in gym class. she forgot, however, to remove a pair of large hoop earrings she was wearing. during the game, an earring was caught in another players finger and the girl suffered a completely avulsed earlobe. how would you care for the avulsed lobe?

wrap the earlobe in a clean dressing, place it in a plastic bag and keep it on ice.

which type of burn may directly affect the heart?

electrical or radiation burn

a burn that only involves the top layer of skin is classified as a

superficial burn

a full-thickness burn

may destroy nerves and muscles

true or false: you can typically judge the severity of a burn by the pain the victim feels

false

list THREE situations in which you would consider a burn to be critical

1. medical professionals are needed
2. if there are entrance/exit wounds
3. you can see the white tissue

you have a severe cut on your knee. after a few days, you see red lines or streaks at the site of the wound. what is happening to the wound?

the wound has become infected

heat burn (appropiate care)

cool the area with water or cool compresses

electrical burn (appropiate care)

cover exit wounds with dry sterile dressings

chemical burn (appropiate care)

flush the area with a large amount of water

radiation burn (appropiate care)

cool the burns and protect from further sun exposure

a chemical burn to the eye should be cared for by

flushing the eye with running water until EMS personnel arrive

which is the first step you should take in checking for burns?

check to see if the scene is safe

burn (definition)

an injury to the skin or other body tissues cause by heat, chemical, electricity or radiation

closed wound (definition)

an injury that does not break the skin in which soft tissue damage occurs beneath the skin

superficial burn (definition)

involving only the top layer of the skin

wound (definition)

an injury to soft tissue

open wound (definition)

an injury resulting in a break in the skins surface

soft tissues include the

skin, muscles and fat

the layer of skin that contains nerves, hair roots, sweat glands, and blood vessels is called the

dermis

_____ makes up the largest segment of the bodys soft tissue

muscle

an open fracture occurs when

a fracture involves torn or penetrated skin

a person who will not or cannot move an injured joint is most likely suffering from a

dislocation

strain

the stretching and tearing of muscles and tendons

dislocation

the displacement of a bone from its normal position at a joint

sprain

the stretching and tearing of ligaments and other soft tissues at a joint

fracture

a break or disruption in bone tissue

true or false: the amount of swelling is a reliable signal of the severity of an injury

false

which of the following would tend to suggest a serious musculoskeletal injury?

the loss of circulation or sensation in an extremity

list THREE signals of a serious musculoskeletal injury

1. discoloration
2. deformation
3. person heard a pop or snap

generally, musculoskeletal injuries are not life threatening. you should call 9-1-1 or the local emergency number immediatly, however, if which one of the following conditions exist?

you see or suspect a fracture or dislocation

a friend has been playing softball and is now complaining of pain in his shoulder. you do not believe that there is a fracture or dislocation and there does not appear to be any reason to call 9-1-1 or the local emergency number, but you still want to help your friend. what can you recommend to your friend to help ease his pain.

RICE. rest, immobilize, cold and elevate.

in general, you should elevate a suspected musculoskeletal injury about the level of the heart. you should not elevate an injury when

you suspect a fracture or dislocation

a splint is a device that maintains an injured part in place if the person must be moved. to be effective a splint for a suspected broken bone should

include the joints above and below the injury site

true or false: you should move or straighten a limb before appling a splint, since leaving a broken limb in an unusual position can cause the victim addictional pain

false

you suspect that Mary has seriously sprained her knee. to care for mary, you decide to apply a splint to her leg. the splint should

include the bones about and below the knee.

the stong, cordlike fibrous tissues that connect muscles to bones are called

tendons

one function of the skeleton is to

protect vital organs and other soft tissues

the fibrous bands that hold bones together at joints are called

ligaments

osteoporosis is

a gradual, progressive weakening of bone

a joint is

formed by the ends of two or more bones coming together

true or false: joints that move more freely are more prone to injury

true

you are playing soccer when a player on the other team falls. he tries to break the fall with an outstretched arm. when he gets up, the player is holding his left arm close to his body and is complaining of shoulder pain. how would you initially respond to this suspected shoulder injury?

allow the victim to continue holding his arm in the most comfortable position

the best way to immobilize an upper arm injury is by

using a sling and binding it to the chest

you suspect a forearm injury. which two joints should you immobilize with a splint?

elbow and wrist

which is the proper order for applying a rigid splint to an injured wrist after you have controlled any bleeding?

check the fingers for feeling, warmth and color. pad the splint; apply the splint; secure the splint; put the arm in a sling; secure the arm; check the fingers for feeling, warmth and color.

a characteristic deformity associated with a fractured femur is the _______ turning of the lower extremity

outward

the lower extremeties include which of the following body parts

tibia and metatarsals

a victim who has an injured femur is likely to exhibit signals of shock because

a fractured femur can result in serious bleeding

a person who has fallen is sitting on the ground complaining of pain in the lower left leg. someone else has already called 9-1-1 or the local emergency number. how could you help care for this person while waiting for EMS personnel to arrive.

have the victim rest in the most comfortable position

if the person must be moved the best way to immobilize an ankle or foot injurey is with a

soft splint

when splinting an injured body part, you should

support the injured part in the position you find it

the first and most important signal of a serious head injury is

an altered level of consciousness

you can consider the possibility of a serious head, neck or back injury by

checking the scene and thinking about the forces involved in the injury

a technique used to minimize movement of the head and neck is called

manual stabilization

you perform the manual stabilization technique by placing

your hands on both sides of the victims head and supporting the head in this position

name TWO situations when you would not move the victims head in line with the body

1. victim is in too much pain and cant move their head
2. obvious deformity

nosebleeds can be controlled by

pinching the nostrils and sitting with the head slightly forward

which is the best way to remove a small foreign body from the eye?

blink the eye several times, allowing tears to remove the foreign body

you approach the scene of a vehicle accident. the driver of one vehicle appears to have been thrown violently against the steering wheel of the car. you suspect that the driver might have a closed chest wound. list TWO signals this victim might have

1. trouble breathing
2. coughing up blood

describe the care you would give to a victim who has an open abdominal wound with an abdominal organ protruding throught the wound

1. call 9-1-1
2. place a moist cloth over the wound

an aura may be experienced before a person

has a seizure

which type of sudden illness may have signals that include weakness on one side of the body and pupils of unequal size?

stroke

why does a person faint?

blood flow to the brain is momentarily reduced

which describes the difference in the care you would give to a person who is experiencing insulin shock from one who is in a diabetic coma?

the basic care is the same: call 9-1-1 and if the victim is conscious, you may give foods or fluids with sugar.

a condition in which too little sugar is in the bloodstream is called

hypoglycemia

a condition in which too much sugar is in the bloodstream is called

hyperglycemia

what is the best care you can give to someone having a seizure?

protect the person from injury and maintain an open airway

the four ways that a poison can enter a persons body are

through the lungs, by being swallowed, through the skin or by being injected

inhaled poison

a lawn fertilizer/pesticide spreader

ingested poison

uncooked shellfish

absorbed poison

kerosene space heater

injected poison

a bee or wasp

all of the following factors might influence the severity of a poisoning except

the time of day the victim was poisoned

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