Favor-seeking business-people and corrupt politicians
Caused numerous scandals during President Grant's administration.
The New York Times and cartoonist Thomas Nast
Forced Boss Tweed out of power and into jail.
Upright Republicans' disgust with Grant administration scandals
Led to the formation of the Liberal Republican party in 1872.
The economic crash of the mid-1870s
Caused unemployment, railroad strikes, and a demand for "cheap money".
Local cultural, moral, and religious differences
Created fierce partisan competition and high voter turnouts, even though the parties agreed on most national issues.
The Compromise of 1877 that settled the disputed Hayes-Tilden election
Led to the withdrawal of troops from the South and the virtual end of federal efforts to protect black rights there.
White workers' resentment of Chinese labor competition
Caused anti-Chinese violence and restrictions against Chinese immigration
Public shock and Garfield's assassination by Guiteau
Helped ensure passage of the Pendleton Actq
The 1890s depression and the drain of gold from the federal treasury
Induced Grover Cleveland to negotiate a secret loan from K.P. Morgan's banking syndicate.
The inability of Populist leaders to overcome divisions between white and black farmers
Led to failure of the third party revolt in the South and a growing racial backlash.