FINAL REVIEW

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questions for the final

Pavlov

the first experimental studies on associative learning studies were conducted by?

Classical Conditioning

Last year Dr. Moritano cleaned Natacha's skin with rubbing alchohol prior to administrating a series of painful rabis shots. Which of the following proccesses accounts that Natacha now becomes fearful everytime she smells rubbing alchohol.

The presentation of the food in the dogs mouth.

In Pavlovs experiments of the salivary conditioning of dogs the US was.

So many different species of animals can be classically conditioned.

Pavlov's research on Classical conditioning was important because?

Operant conditioning

IN which form of learning is behavior said to be influenced by its consequences?

reinforcer

an event that increases the behavior that it follows.

partial reinforcement

the way slot machines reward gamblers with money best illistrates.

specified time period has elapsed

a fixed-inerval schedule of reinforcement is onein which a respone is reinforced only a(n)

variable interval

watching the night sky for shooting stars is likely to be reinforced on a ______ schedule.

decreases; increases

punishment ________ the rate of operant responding, and negative reinforcement____ rate of operant responding

CR

you repeatedly hear a tone just before having a puff of air directed to your eye. Blinking to tone without an air puff is a

short-term

Your consciously activated but limited-capacity memory is called ________ memory.

encoding

automatic processing and effortful processing are two types of

the sequence of your day's events

you are most likely to automatically encode information about

spacing effect

jamille performs better on a foreign language vocabulary tests if she studies every day for 15 min for eight days than if she crams for two hours the night before the test. this illustrates the know as.

serial position

the tendency to immediately recall the first and last items in a list better than the middle items is know as the _____ effect.

how well the word describes you.

which of the following questions about the word depressed would best prepare you to correctly remember tomorrow that you had sen the word on today's test?

iconic

a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli is called _______ memory

a momentary sesnory memory of auditory stimuli

echoic memory refers to

flashbulb memory

joshua vividly recalls his feelings and wha he was soing at the exact moment of his grandfather's unexpected death. this beset illistrates.

retrieval cues

words, events, places and emotions that trigger our memory of the past are called

encoding

the inability to remember how Lincoln's head appears on a penny is most likely due to a lack of

source amnesia

after attending group therapy sessions for adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse, Karen mistakenly remembered details from other's traumatic life stories as part of her own life history. this best illustrates the dangers of

proactive interference

during her evening spanish language exam, jamica so easily rememers the French vocabulary she studied that morning that she finds it difficult to recal the spanish vocabulary she rehearsed that after noon, her difficulty best illustrates

retrieval failure

while taking the final exam in American history, Marie was surprosed and frustrated by her momentary inability to remember the name of the first president of the US. her difficulty most clearly illustrates

cognition

which term refers to all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering and communicating?

concept

when we use the word automobile to refer to a category of transport vehicles, we are using this word as a(n)

best example of a particular category

a prototype is a

algorithm

simple thinking straegies that allow us to solve problems and make judgments efficiently are called

insight

after spending two hours trying to solve an enineering problem, Amira finally gave up as she starts tyring to fall asleep that nght, a solution to the problem popped into her head. Amira's experiece best illustrates.

functional fixedness

Marlene forgot to bring a pillow on the camping trip, so whe spent a very uncomfortalbe and restless night. unfortunately, she never thought of using her down-filled jacket as a pillow. Marlene's oversight best illustrates.

the availibility heuristic

by encouraging people to imagine their homes being destroyed by winds from a hurricane, insurance sales people are especially successful at selling large homeowners' policies. they are most clearly exploiting the influece of

belief perserverance

the value of making a good first impression when u begin work for a new employer is best underscored by the research on

framing

On Monday the meterologist forecast a twenty percent chance of rain, so Sheryl too her umbrella to work. on friday he reported an eighty percent chance that it would not rain, so sheryl left her umbrella at home. Sheyl's behavior illustrates the effect of

grammar

the systme of rules in a language that enable us to understand and commuicate with others is called

babbling

The earliest stage of speech development is called the _________stage.

reinforcement

B.F skinner emphasized the importance of _____ in language acquisition

overconfidence

Prompt feedback regarding your performance on psychology practice testes is most likely to inhibit

intelligence tests

psychologists use ________ to assess individuals' mental aptitudes and compare them with those of others.

eight

Howard Gardner indentified a total of ________ intelligences

creativity

Intrinsic motivation is thought to be an important component of

emotional intelligence

the ability to delay immediate pleasures in pursuit of long-range rewards is most clearly a characterisic of

achievement

the written exam for a driver's license would most likely be considered a _____ test

normal curve

the distribution of intelligence test scores in the general population forms a bell-shaped pattern this pattern is called a

validity

a test that measures or predicts what it is supposed to is said to have a high degree of

be mainstreamed into regular school classrooms

over the past fifty or so years, children with mental retardation have increasingly been likely to

chess tournament

boys are most likely to outperform girls in a

test performance is influenced by cultural expericences

everyone would agree that intelligence tests are "biased" in the sense taht

more neural plasticity and faster brain-wave responses to simple stimui than do those with lower scores

people who score high on intelligence tests exhibit

high; low

Mary's bathreoom scale always overstates peopls actual weight by exactly six pounds. The scale is ____ reliablity and __ validity.

biopsychosocial approach

an integrated perspective that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis

Wundt and Titchener

focused on inner sensations

structuralism

an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind

behaviorism

the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).

humanistic psychology

historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people; used personalized methods to study personality in hopes of fostering personal growth

cognitive neuroscience

the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)

hypothesis

a testable prediction, often implied by a theory

theory

an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations

neurons

a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system

sensory neurons

neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord

motor neurons

neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands

interneurons

neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs

nerves

bundled axons that form neural "cables" connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs

somatic nervous system

the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles. (skeletal nervous system0

autonomic nervous system

the part of the nervous system of vertebrates that controls involuntary actions of the smooth muscles and heart and glands. Divides up

sympathetic nervous system

the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations

parasympathetic nervous system

the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy

association areas

areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking.

Piget's theory

believed that the driving force behind intellectual development is our biological development amidst experiecnes of enviorment famous for "stages" of cognitive development.

sensorimotor

object permanence
anxiety
birth to 2 years

preoperational

pretend play
egocentrism
2-7 years

concrete oerational

conservation
mathematical transformations
(thinking logically)
7 to 11

Formal operational

abstract logic
potential for mature moral reasoning
12- adulthood.

Permissive

paretns submit to their children's desires. Few demands

Authoritarian

parents impose rules and expect obedience.

Authoritative

parents both demanding and responsive

Preconventional morality Kohlburg

before age nine. morality focuses on selfinterest. (obey rules to avoid punishment or gain reward)

Conventional morality Kohlburg

by early adolescence. caring for otheres and on upholding laws and social rules.

Postconventional morality Kohlburg

abstract reasoning. actions are judged "right" because they flow from peopl'e rights or self0defined basic ethic principles.

sensation

the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment

perception

the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events

Maslow's hierachy

Physiological needs-safty-belongingness and love-esteem needs-self-actualization-self transcendence needs.

conscientiousness

organized
care full
disciplined------------> impulsive

agreeableness

soft hearted
trusting
helpful-------------> uncooperative or ruthless

neuroticism

calm
secure
slef-satisfied ----------> insecure, self-pitying

openess

imaginative----------------)practical
preference
for variety--------> preference for routine
independant

extraversion

socailble--------------->retiring
fun-loving-----------------> sober
affectionate--------------> reserved

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