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james watt

Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819)

edwin drake

American pioneer in oil industry; became first to drill for petroleum

thomas edison

United States inventor invented electric light

factory system

a method of production that brought many workers and machines together into one building

luddites

These were the angry old cottage industry workers who lost their jobs and costumers to machines and as a result, they began to secretly destroy the machines

socialists

people who believe industries should be publicly owned

nations

Group of people who have the same laws and leaders.

italian unification

the political and social movement that agglomerated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of Italy in the 19th century.

the industrail revolution

period in which fundamental changes occurred in agriculture, textile and metal manufacture, transportation, economic policies and the social structure in England.

otto von bismark

Prussian prime minister, he led the unification of Germany and the creation of the German empire.

empire

a group of countries under a single authority

the civilizing mission

The idea that Europeans should come to Africa and educate/ "save"

central powers

World War I alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire

franz ferdinand

Archduke of Austria-Hungary

home front

the mobilization of a nation civilian population during war; The name given to the part of war that was not actively involved in the fighting but which was vital to it.

vladimir lenin

Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR (1870-1924)

the league of nations

The international organization, created by the Treaty of Versailles, which was supposed to help create a future in which there would be no need for war.

rasputin

Self-proclaimed holy man who claimed to heal the sick and have prophecy. He had much influence over Tsarina Alexandra and she often went to him for advise on political issues. He was believed to be having a sexual affair with Tsarina Alexandra and was assassinated by three members of the higher aristocracy; Tsarina Alexandra was very distraught and depressed due to his death

great depression

the economic crisis beginning with the stock market crash in 1929 and continuing through the 1930s

new deal

Franklin Roosevelt's economic reform program designed to solve the problems of the Great Depression

facism

a political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and has no tolerance for opposition

kristallnacht

Night of Broken Glass, Nov 9 1938 night when the Nazis killed or injured many jews & destroyed many jewish propertys

munich agreement

agreement between Chamberlain and Hitler that Germany would not conquer any more land, and if did, would declare war

blitzkreig

"Lighting Wars" type of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland in 1939

battle of britain

the prolonged bombardment of British cities by the German Luftwaffe during World War II and the aerial combat that accompanied it

the manhattan project

a secret research and development project of the US to develop the atomic bomb. Its success granted the US the bombs that ended the war with Japan as well as ushering the country into the atomic era

the holocaust

The mass murder of 6 million Jews and others in Nazi concentration camps.

stalingrad

a city in the European part of Russia on the Volga

hitler

German Nazi dictator during World War II (1889-1945)

enclosure movement

The process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century.

selective breeding

The process of selecting a few organisms with desired traits to serve as parents of the next generation

george stephenson

English railway pioneer who built the first passenger railway in 1825 (1781-1848)

nikolaus otto

invented internal combustion engine; from Germany, invented gas powered internal combustion engine

samuel morse

United States portrait painter who patented the telegraph and developed the Morse code (1791-1872)

division of labor

Division of work into a number of separate tasks to be performed by different workers

romantics

group of authors and artists during the 1800s who thought people should return to nature

communists

Those who believe that socialism can only be realized through violent revolution and totalitarian dictatorship, emerged from bolshevicks

nationalism

the doctrine that your national culture and interests are superior to any other, love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it

schlieffen plan

Germany's military plan at the outbreak of World War I, according to which German troops would rapidly defeat France and then move east to attack Russia.

franco-prussian war

Third stage in German unification. Bismark sought to unify all Germans by creating a common enemy in France. Germany defeated France easily and German unification upset the balance of power.

imperialism

A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.

triple entente

An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI.

total war

a war in which a belligerent engages in the complete mobilization of fully available resources and population

fourteen points

a series of proposals in which U.S. president Woodrow Wilson outlined a plan for achieving a lasting peace after World War I.

the treaty of versailles

A peace treaty signed at Versailles at the end of WW1 that involved 32 countries including Canada.

nicholas II alexandra

He relied on the army and bureaucracy to uphold his regime. But World War I magnified his problems. Took personal control of his armed force, and got severely raped in the war.

provisional government

temporary government that replaced nicholas II

dust bowl

Region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930 lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages.

alexandra

Last Czarina of Russia. Wife of Nicholas II. With Czar at the battlefield she interfiered with politics on advice from Rasputin who claimed to be a holy man. She and her family was executed.

totalitarianism

absolute control by the state or a governing branch of a highly centralized institution.

lebensraum

Hitler's expansionist theory based on a drive to acquire "living space" for the German people

sudetenland

an area in western Czechoslovakia that was coveted by Hitler

molotov ribbentrop pact

Non-agression treaty between Germany and Russia

vichy france

fascist authoritarian corporate puppet government after france was overtaken.

operation barbarossa

codename for Nazi Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II.

lend lease program

arrangement for the transfer of war supplies, including food, machinery, and services, to nations whose defense was considered vital to the defense of the United States in World War II.

einsatzgruppen

Nazi strike forces that killed innocent Jews with their infamous "death squads"

mussolini

founded fascism and ruled Italy for almost 21 years, most of that time as dictator. He dreamed of building Italy into a great empire, but he led his nation to defeat in World War II (1939-1945) and was executed by his own people.

stalin

Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)

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