Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment

55 terms by blanconikki 

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Geocentric

-Earth at the centre

Heliocentric

-The sun at the centre

Ether

-Unchanging substance too pure to exist on earth

Aristotle

-Earth, water, wind, fire

Copernicus

-Proposed the idea of the sun being at the centre of the universe

On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres

-Copernicus' book

Galileo

-Taught mathematics at the University of Padua

Galileo

-First used the scientific method

Netherlands

-This is where the first telescope was created

Galileo

-Was condemned to remain in prison in his own house

Kepler

-Discovered the laws of planetary motion

Tycho Brahe

-Danish astronomer

Brahe

-Built Uraniborg
-one of the first observatories

Uraniborg

-means castle of the skies

Isaac Newton

-English scientist and mathematician

Newton

-Gravity and Inertia

Principia

-Newton's book

Andreas Vesalius

-Studied the human anatomy
-Dissected the human body

William Harvey

-English doctor
-Explained how the circulation of the blood and the workings of the heart

Anton van Leeuwenheok

-created fine glass lenses
-discovered the one celled organism

Carolus Linnaeus

-Plants and animals
-System for naming and classifying

Francis Bacon

-English statesman
-Novum Organum

Rene Descartes

-Discourse on Method
-science and philosophy in terms of mathematics

Thomas Hobbes

-Science of politics

Thomas Hobbes

-wrote Leviathan

Leviathan

-This book compares a state to a whale

John Locke

-Most influential ideas on government

John Locke

-Wrote the Two Treatises of Government

Atheist

-someone who does not believe in religion and God

Deist

-believes in God but not the clergy

Censorship

-the stopping of publication of works considered a threat to accepted teachings

Parliament

-This is why Philosophes envied the government of England

Philosophes

-Social critics and philosophers of the scientific enlightenment/ revolution

Voltaire

-Francois Marie Arouet

Voltaire

-attacked or made fun of intolerance and superstition

Voltaire

-wrote Candide

Baron de Montesquieu

-principle of separation of powers
-legislature, judicial, and executive branches of government

Encyclopedia

-book of information on many topics
-focuses more on science and technology

Encyclopedia

-Classified Directory of the Sciences, Arts, and Skills

Denis Diderot

-Main editor of the Encyclopedia

Jean d'Alemebert

- Edited the scientific articles in the Encyclopedia

Cesare Beccaria

-Of Crimes and Punishment

Cesare Beccaria

-Italian economist and low prof.
-condemned severe punishments

John Howard

-English reformer
-State of the Prisons in England and Wales (called attention to the mistreatment of prisoners)

Jean Jacques Rousseau

-"arts and sciences are part of the reason people are being corrupted"

Rousseau

-natural man
-noble savage

Rousseau

-Emile
-children should learn only when they want to

Enlightened despots

-Catherine the Great
-Joseph II
-Frederick II

Emilie du Chatelet

-Noblewoman
-Mathematician and physicist
-Translated Newton's works into French

Johann Sebastian Bach

-One of the most famous composers of the Baroque period

Classical Period

-simple and elegant styles adapted form the Greek and Romans

Joseph Addison and Richard Steele

-Published magazines based on english philosophers

Racine and Moliere

-Wrote classical dramas

Franz Joseph Haydn

-Symphony and sonata

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

-Died at the age of 35
-Don Giovanni
-Marriage of Figaro

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