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Androgynous

Incorporated both feminine and masculine properties

Feminine

Description of traits, behaviors or interest assigned to the female gender role

Masculine

Description of traits, behaviors or interest assigned to the male gender role

Bisexual

Accept other/same sex as sexual partners

Heterosexual

Other sex= sexual partner

Homosexual

Prefer same sex sexual partner

Constructionist

Pplt w/ the perspective that gender cannot be divorced from its context

Feminism

Men and women should be treated equally

Sexism

Affective component of ones attitude toward sex characterized by demonstration of prejudice toward ppl on their sex

Gender

Social categories of male and female

Sex

Biological categoreies of male and female

Gender Identity/Gender-Role Identity

Ones perception of oneself as psychologically male or female

Gender Role

Expectations that go along with being a male or female

Gender-Role Attitude

Ones personal view about how men and women should behave

Interrrole Conflict

Conflict between expectations of two or more roles that are assumed simultaneously

Intrarole Conflict

Conflict between expectations within a given role

Intersex

Person born with ambiguous genitalia

Maximalists

Persons who maintain there are important differences between the two sexes

Minimalists

Persons who maintain the two sexes are fundamentally the same

Sex-related behavior

Behavior corresponding to sex but is not necessarily caused by sex

Sex Stereotype

Cognitive component of one's attitude towards sex

Sex-Typed

Condition of possessing the biological traits of one sex and exhibiting the psychological traits that correspond with that sex

Sex-Typing

Acquisition of sex-appropriate preferences, behaviors, skills, and self-concept

Transgender

Individual who psychological sex is not congruent with biological sex

Transsexual

Persons who biological sex have been changed to reflect their psychological sex

Demand Characteristics

Ways in which participants of an experiment can influence the outcomes of a study

Experimenter Effects

Ways in which the experimenter can intentionally or unintentionally influence the results of a study

Situational Influences

Situations in which men and women find themselves and the people with whom they interact

Socially Desirability Response Bias

A demand characteristic; ways in which participants behave in experiments to give socially desirable answers

Unmitigated Agency

Personality orientation characterized by a focus on the self to the exclusion of others

Unmitigated Communion

Personality orientation characterized by a focus on others to the exclusion of the self

Traditional Gender Ideology

Men's sphere is work and women's sphere is home

Egalitarian Gender Ideology

Power is distributed equally between men and women and that men and women identify equally with them same spheres

Transitional Gender Ideology

Acceptable for women and men to identify with the same spheres, but should devote proportionally more time to matters at home and men should devote more time at work

Hostile Sexism

Feelings of hostility towards women reflected by negative assumption about women

Benevolent Sexism

Positive feelings toward women coupled with the notion that women are less competent than men and are in need of a mans help

Gender Stereotypes

Features that individuals assigns to men and women in their society; features are not assigned due to one's biological sex, but due to the social roles men and women hold

Confirmatory Hypothesis Testing

Process of noticing information that confirms stereotypes and disregarding information that disconfirms stereotypes

Empathy

Ability to experience the same emotion as another person or feel sympathy or compassion for another person

Moderating Variable

Variable that alters the relation between the independent variable and the dependent variable

Behavioral Confirmation

Process by which a perceivers expectation actually alters the targets behavior so the target comes to confirm the perceivers expectancy

Cognitive Confirmation

Idea that individuals see what they want to see

Gender Aschematic

Someone who does not use the gender category as guiding principle on behavior or as a way of processing information about the world

Gender Schematic

Someone who uses the gender category as guiding principle in behavior and as a way of processing information about the world.

Gender Constancy

Categorization of the self as male or female and the realization that is category cannot be changed

Social Cognitive Theory

States that cognitive development is one factor in gender-role acquisition, but there are social influences as well

Internal Attribution

Cause assigned to behavior that originates within the person

External Attribution

Cause assigned to a behavior that originates in the environment

Stable Attribution

Cause for behavior that does not change over time

Unstable Attribution

Cause for a behavior that may change with time, day, or place.

Expectancy/Value Model of Achievement

Theory that achievement-related choices are a function of out expectancy for success and our value of the area

Fear of Success

Association of negative consequences with achievement

Independent Self-Construal

Sense of self based on independence, individuation, and separation from others

Interdependent Self-Construal

Sense of self based on connection to others

Self-Serving Bias

The tendency to assign internal attribution for success and external attribution for failure.

Positive Social Behavior

Social behaviors engaged in during group interaction that are intended to maintain group harmony

Task Behavior

Social behavior, such as asking questions and offering suggestions, that is directed toward achieving a specific goal

Negative Social Behavior

Behavior during group interaction that could harm a relationship, such as disagreement and provoking conflict.

Co-Rumination

Discussing problems repeatedly in the context of a relationship

Emotional Bond Challenge

Challenge faces by cross-sex friendship whereby the friends must decide if the closeness they feel toward one another is friendship or romantic love

Equality Challenge

Challenge faced by cross-sex friendships because the equality central to friendship conflicts with the status hierarchy typically associated with male/female relationships

Opportunity Challenge

Difficulty experienced when attempting to establish a cross-sex friendship that results from the fact that members of the same sex are generally more accessible.

Sexual Challenge

Challenge faces by cross-sex friendship whereby the friends must ask themselves if there is a sexual attraction between them that could lead to a romantic relationship

Demand/Withdraw Pattern

Interaction episode characterized by one person demanding and the other person not responding or withdrawing

o

Equity

State of a relationship in which the ration of what puts in and gets out of a relationship equals that of the partner

Emotional Transmission

Situation in which one person's emotions influence another's persons emotions

Script

Schema or cognitive representation for a sequence of events

Social Exchange Theory

Theory that relationship satisfaction is partially a function of the rewards and costs in the relationship

Social Role Theory

Theory that states men's and women's behavior is a function of the roles that they hold in society.

Artifacts

Confounding variables that lead sex differences to appear that do not really exist

Health Behaviors

Activities that either promote good health or contribute to bad health

Illness Behaviors

Condition of labeling a symptom as illness and responding to it as such; adopting the sick role

Nurturant Role Hypothesis

Supposition that women's roles require them to attend to the needs of others which results in fatigue, exposure to illness, and not taking care of oneself when sick

Sick Role Hypothesis

Suggestion that sex difference in using medical care are due to women's greater tendency than men to adopt the "sick role"

Buffering Effects

Link of social support to health only under condition of high stress

Gender Tension Line

Point at which one feels uncomfortable with the adoption of some aspect of the other gender role

Intimate Terrorism

Violence on the part of men that stems from their attempts to control women.

Marital Rape Exemption Clause

Suggestion that healthier people are "selected" into marriage

Situational Couple Violence

Occasional episodes of violent behavior o the part of husbands and wives that are precipitated by stressful events

Access Discrimination

Situation in which an individual is not offered a given job or is offered a lesser job because of some defining characteristic

Glass Ceiling

Label applied to barriers to the advancement of women and minorities in organizations

Glass Escalator

Term referring to the ability for men to be promoted quickly when they take positions in traditionally female fields

Hostile Environment

Type of sexual harassment in which one person is creating a hostile, intimidating work environment for another

Marital Bonus

Increase in income granted to men who are married and/or have children compared to men who are single

Maternal Wall

Employers devaluation and limitation of job opportunities of female employees when they become parents

Quid Pro Quo

Type of sexual harassment in which one person offers work benefits or threatens work repercussions in exchange for sexual favors

Role Conflict

Condition in which the demand of one role are at odds with the demands of another role

Role Expansion Hypothesis

Idea that benefits are to be gained from having diverse roles

Role Scarcity Hypothesis

Idea that multiple roles will have negative effect on health because time and resources are limited and addition roles tap resources

Role Overload

Condition that arises when time limitations created difficulties in fulfilling obligations for ones roles

Treatment Discrimination

Situation in which an individual receives a reduced salary or reduced opportunities for promotions to other individuals having the same job

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