A shelled, water-retaining egg that allows reptile, bird, and certain mammal embryos to develop on land.
State the five characteristics that set reptiles apart from other vertebrates.
1. Covered with tough, dry scales.
3. Breathe with lungs throughout their lives.
4. Three-chambered heart with a ventricle that is partially divided.
5. Produce amniotic eggs covered with a leathery shell, most oviparous, some ovoviviparous.
In this module, we studied reptiles, birds and mammals. For each class, indicate whether they are ectothermic or endothermic.
Reptiles are ectothermic, while birds and mammals are endothermic.
State the functions of the yolk, the allantois and the albumen.
The yolk serves as nourishment for the developing embryo. The allantois allows the embryo to breathe, and the albumen destroys pathogens that can enter the egg as well as supplying water and amino acids to the embryo.
Reptiles have a growth-related characteristic in common with the arthropods. What is it?
They must both molt because their body covering skin is not living.
What are the two most important functions of reptile scales?
Reptile scales prevent water loss and insulate the reptile's body.
These are the reptile orders that contain currently living reptiles:
Rhynchocephalia, Squamata, Crocodilia, Testudines
Place the following types of reptiles into their appropriate order:
a. snakes b. tuataras c. lizards d. tortoises e. alligators f. turtles
Rhynchocephalia: b. tuataras
Squamata: a. snakes, c. lizards
Crocodilia: e. alligators
Testudines: d. tortoises, f. turtles
State the six characteristics that set birds apart from other vertebrates.
2. Heart with four chambers.
3. Toothless bill.
4. Oviparous, laying an amniotic egg that is covered in a lime-containing shell.
5. Covered with feathers.
6. Skeleton composed of porous, lightweight bones (not a characteristic for all birds)
A blood sample comes from the ventricle of an animal that is either an amphibian or a bird. How can you tell which?
If the blood sample has a mixture of oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood, it comes from an amphibian. If it has only one or the other, it comes from a bird.
Which has a harder shell: the egg of a reptile or the egg of a bird?
A bird's egg's shell is harder.
You see some barbs from a feather. You have no idea whether they came from a down feather or a contour feather. Looking at the barbs under the microscope, however, you see that there are no hooked barbules. What kind of feather is it?
What type of feather (down or contour) is used for flight? What kind is used for insulation?
Contour feathers are used for flight, while down feathers are used for insulation.
What is a bird actually doing when it is preening?
When preening, a bird is actually oiling its feathers.
What three things (at least) did flight engineers have to learn from birds to make practical flight possible?
1. Proper structure of a wing from birds.
2. How to make strong hollow tubes from studying bird bones.
3. Reduced wing turbulence from birds.
Which is heavier, a bird's bone or the same size bone of an amphibian?
The amphibian's bone is heavier.
State the five characteristics that set mammals apart from other vertebrates.
1. Hair covering the skin.
2. Reproduce with internal fertilization and usually viviparous.
3. Nourish their young with milk secreted from specialized glands.
4. Four-chambered heart.