Intro Psych Final Exam Review Part 2

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Psychology!

To help Claire quit smoking, a therapist delivers an electric shock to her arm each time she smokes a cigarette. The therapist is using

aversive conditioning.

To learn about the TV viewing habits of all the children attending Oakbridge School, Professor DeVries randomly selected and interviewed 50 of the school's students. In this instance, all the children attending the school are considered to be a(n)

population

Psychopharmacology involves the study of how

drugs affect mind and behavior.

After receiving very bad news, people __________ the duration of their negative feelings.

overestimate

A general sense of happiness or life satisfaction is most unrelated to whether people

are well educated.

The pop-out phenomenon illustrates that some stimuli almost inevitably trigger

selective attention.

Cognitive therapy works, top-down, by changing thought processes. Antidepressant drugs work, bottom-up on the emotion forming

limbic system.

The occurrence of spontaneous recovery suggests that during extinction

the CR is suppressed.

In an experimental study of the effects of anxiety on self-esteem, anxiety would be the _________ variable.

independent

Research on the environmental conditions that influence sexual orientation indicates that

the reported backgrounds of homosexuals and heterosexuals are similar.

Dogs conditioned to salivate to stimulation of the thigh also begin to salivate when stimulated on other parts of the body. This best illustrates

generalization.

The emotion of fear is sometimes accompanied by _______ that differ from those that accompany rage.

hormone secretions and finger temperatures

Children are especially likely to behave aggressively after viewing TV violence in which an attractive person commits

justified violence that cause no visible pain or harm.

A psychologist would have the greatest difficulty differentiating between anger and fear by monitoring the ___________ associated with each.

heart rates

Spontaneous recovery refers to the

reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response.

In Milgram's obedience experiments, "teachers" were MOST likely to deliver high levels of shock when

the "learner" was placed in a different room from the "teacher"

In a written reort of their research, psychologists specify exactly how anxiety is assessed, thus providing their readers with a(n)

operational definition.

Dogs strapped into a harness and given repeated and unavoidable shocks developed

learned helplessness.

Unlike ducklings, children do not imprint. Their fondness for certain people, however, is fostered by

mere exposure.

Your roommate is conducting a survey to learn how many hours the typical student studies each day. She plans to pass out her questionnaire to the members of her sorority. You point out that her findings will be flawed because

the sample will probably not be representative of the population of interest.

The adaptation-level phenomenon refers to the

tendency for standards of judgement to be heavily influenced by previous experiences.

Police interrogators have been trained to ask less suggestive and more effective questions to avoid

the misinformation effect.

A procedure that trains people to make new responses to stimuli that currently trigger unwanted responses is called

counterconditioning.

We find it harder to frown when viewing a smile than when viewing a frown. This can most clearly be attributed to

mirror neurons.

At about 8 months, children become increasingly likely to react to newcomers with tears and distress. This best illustrates

stranger anxiety.

In Pavlov's experiments, the dog's salivation triggered by the taste of food was a(n)

unconditioned response.

Stacey suggests that because children are more impulsive than adults, they will have more difficulty controlling their anger. stacey's prediction regarding anger management is an example of

a hypothesis.

When golden hamsters were repeatedly threatened and attacked while young, they suffered long-term changes in

brain chemistry.

According to the _______, you would be able to experience emotion without sympathetic nervous system arousal.

Cannon-Bard theory

Infants develop a fear of strangers at about 8 months of age because they can't assimilate unfamiliar faces into their

schemas.

The foot-in-the-door phenomenon refers to the tendency to

comply with a large request if one has previously complied with a small request.

The occipital lobes are to _______ as the temporal lobes are to _______.

seeing; hearing

The placebo effect best illustrates the impact of ________ on feelings and behaviors.

positive expectations.

When you question whether anecdotal evidence can be generalized to all people, you are applying

critical thinking.

In which type of research is a representative, random sample of people asked to answer many questions about their behaviors or attitudes?

the survey

Our ability to learn by witnessing the behavior of others best illustrates

observational learning.

The participants in Philip Zimbardo's simulated prison study

were so endangered by their role-playing experience that the study was discontinued.

In Pavlov's experiments, the dog's salivation triggered by the sound of the tone was a(n)

conditioned response

The spillover effect is best explained in terms of the

two-factor theory.

In Pavlov's original experiment with dogs, the meat served as a

US.

According to Milgram, the most fundamental lesson to be learned from his study of obedience is that

even ordinary people, who are not usually hostile, can become agents of destruction.

When exposed to a scent derived from me's sweat, gay and straight men responded differently in the area of the ________ that governs sexual arousal.

hypothalamus

Research on memory construction indicates that

false memories often feel as real as true memories.

As her professor distributed the mathematics test to the class, Blaire's heart started to pound and her palms began to sweat. These physiological reactions were activated by her ________ nervous system.

sympathetic

Research on sex hormones and human sexual behavior indicates that

women's sexual interests are somewhat influenced by the phases of their menstrual cycles.

Electroconvulsive therapy has proven to be effective in the treatment of

depression

After the horror of 9/11, many people said the CIA and FBI should obviously have foreseen the likelihood of this form of terrorism. This perception most clearly illustrates

hindsight bias.

Therapists practice __________ by using positive reinforcers to reward closer and closer approximations of a desired behavior.

behavior modification

In treating alcohol dependency, therapists have clients consume alcohol that contains a nausea-producing drug. This technique is known as

aversive conditioning.

Women and men are most likely to be attracted to strongly gender-typical mates in cultures characterized by

gender inequality.

Which drugs appear to produce therapeutic affects by blocking receptor sites for dopamine?

antipsychotic drugs

Two counterconditioning techniques for replacing unwanted responses include

aversive conditioning and exposure therapy.

Most people are likely to be surprised by the results of Milgram's initial obedience experiments because

the "teachers" were more obedient than most people would have predicted.

The ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and similar stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus is called

discrimination.

The basic components of emotion are

expressive behaviors, physiological arousal, and conscious experience.

By exposing different parts of emotion-laden faces, researchers found that we detect anger mostly from the ________ and happiness mostly from the _______.

eyes; mouth.

Systematic desensitization involves replacing a negative response with a positive response, whereas ________ involves replacing a positive response with a negative response.

aversive conditioning.

Nancy's therapist encourages her to think about her strengths rather than her weaknesses and to develop a habit of thanking others when they compliment her or provide emotional support. The therapist's approach best illustrates

cognitive-behavior therapy.

Both the researchers and the participants in a memory study are ignorant about which participants have actually received a potentially memory-enhancing drug and which have received a placebo. This investigation involves the use of

the double-blind procedure.

After learning to fear a white rat, Little Albert responded with fear to the sight of a rabbit. This best illustrates the process of

generalization.

Evidence that brain anatomy differences account for variations in sexual orientation is provided by the fact that these brain differences

originate at about the time of birth.

In answering multiple-choice test items, smart test-takers are best advised to

recall the correct answer to each question before reading the alternative answers.

Women are most likely to be sexually attracted to men who seem

mature and affluent.

Studies of monkeys raised with artificial mothers suggest that mother-infant emotional bonds result primarily from mothers providing infants with

body contact.

We are most likely to experience cognitive dissonance if we feel

a great sense of responsibility for engaging in behaviors of which we personally disapprove.

Rabbits fail to react with fear to a signal of impending shock of they have suffered damage to the part of the brain called the

amygdala.

To understand the unusual behavior of an adult client, a clinical psychologist carefully investigates the client's current life situation and his physical, social-cultural, and educational history. Which research method has the psychologist used?

The case study.

Ever since Lupe was scolded and punished by her teacher for misbehaving, she has been fearful of being near the teacher. This illustrates that fear

can be learned.

In which type of research would an investigator manipulate one factor in order to observe its effect on some behavior or mental process?

Experimentation

In most nonhuman mammals, female sexual receptivity is greatest when

estrogen levels are highest.

Which of the following research findings is consistent with the James-Lange theory of emotion?

Distinctly different patterns of brain activity are associated with distinctly different emotions.

In one experiment, most of the participants who viewed a videotape of men tossing a basketball remained unaware of an umbrella-toting woman sauntering across the screen. This illustrated

inattentional blindness.

I am a relatively slow-acting (but long-lasting) chemical messenger carried throughout the body by the bloodstream. What am I?

A hormone.

(close up) In order, the sequence of steps in the SQ3R method is

survey, question, read, review, reflect.

The tragic murder of Kitty Genovese outside her New York Apartment stimulated social-psychological research on

altruism

According to the two-factor theory, the two basic components of emotions are _________ and ________.

a cognitive label; physical arousal.

Women's sexual receptivity differs from that of nonhuman female mammals in being more responsive to ________ levels than to estrogen levels.

testosterone

The process by which people learn a sense of personal control or personal helplessness has been most strongly emphasized by the

social-cognitive perspective.

In Watson and Rayner's experiment, the loud noise was the _______ and the white rat was the ________.

US; CS

The James-Lange theory of emotion states that

to experience emotion is to be aware of our physiological response to an emotional-arousing event.

Research has shown that neck-level spinal cord injuries reduce the intensity of certain emotional experiences. This finding supports the

James-Lange theory.

Lee was momentarily terrified as a passing automobile nearly sideswipes his car. When one of his passengers joked that he almost had a two-color car, Lee laughed uncontrollably. Lee's emotional volatility best illustrates

the spillover effect.

A statement describing how a researcher measures a research variable is known as a(n)

operational definition.

Experiments suggest that children exposed to a model who says one thing and does another will

talk in ways consistent with what the model says and act in ways consistent with what the model does.

The set of prescribed behaviors associated with a particular social position is best described as a(n)

role.

The perception that your fate is determined by luck reflects

an external locus of control.

One naturalistic observation of pedestrians found that half of the people on cellphones exhibit unsafe road crossing. This illustrates the impact of

selective attention.

The term CATHARSIS refers to emotional

release.

In Milgram's obedience experiments, "teachers" exhibited a somewhat lower level of compliance when an experimenter's orders when

the experiment was not associated with a prestigious institution like Yale University.

Rapid fear reactions to sensory input in the absence of conscious thought are possible because certain neural pathways bypass the

prefrontal cortex.

The assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions is most clearly central to

cognitive therapies.

Learned helplessness is MOST likely to be associated with

an external locus of control.

After imagining and then writing about various tragedies, such as people being burned and disfigured, university women expressed increased

subjective well-being.

To assess reactions to a proposed tuition hike at her school, Ariana sent a questionnaire to every fifteenth person in the registrar's alphabetical listing of all currently enrolled students. Ariana is ensuring that her survey results are accurate by using

random sampling.

In a psychological experiment, the experimental factor that is manipulated by the investigator is called the _______ variable.

independent

Three Key attitudes of scientific inquiry are

curiosity, skepticism, and humility.

Place theory suggest that

the pitch we hear is related to the place where the cochlea's basilar membrane is stimulated.

Gender refers to

the biological and social definition of male and female.

Evolutionary psychologists would be most likely to attribute gender differences in attitudes toward casual sex to the fact that men

have greater reproductive potential than do women.

Researchers observed that the ________ levels of heterosexual male collegians were especially likely to increase while they were conversing with a _______ student.

testosterone; female

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