APUSH TRoosevelt/WW1

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1001. Margaret Sanger (1883-1966)

American leader of the movement to legalize birth control during the early 1900's. As a nurse in the poor sections of New York City, she had seen the suffering caused by unwanted pregnancy. Founded the first birth control clinic in the U.S. and the American Birth Control League, which later became Planned Parenthood.

1002. Edward Ross (1866-1951)

Sociologist who promoted "social psychology," the belief that social environment affected the behavior of individuals. He believed that practical solutions to current problems should be derived through the united efforts of church, state and science, and that the citizens should actively try to cure social ills rather than sit passively and wait for corrections.

1003. Richard Ely (1854-1943)

He asserted that economic theory should reflect social conditions, and believed that the government should act to regulate the economy to prevent social injustice.

1004. Initiative, referendum, recall

Initiative: people have the right to propose a new law. Referendum: a law passed by the legislature can be reference to the people for approval/veto. Recall: the people can petition and vote to have an elected official removed from office. These all made elected officials more responsible and sensitive to the needs of the people, and part of the movement to make government more efficient and scientific.

1005. Direct Primary

An election where people directly elect their party's candidates for office. Candidates had previously been selected by party caucuses that were considered elitist and undemocratic. This made elected official more accountable to the people.

1006. 16th, 17th, 18th and 19th Amendments

1913 - 16th Amendment authorized Congress to levy an income tax. 1913 - 17th Amendment gave the power to elect senators to the people. Senators had previously been appointed by the legislatures of their states. 1919 - 18th Amendment prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages. 1920 - 19th Amendment gave women the right to vote.

1007. Charles Evans Hughes (1862-1948)

Started government regulation of public utilities. He was Secretary of State under Harding and later became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. He was the Republican candidate in 1916, and lost to Wilson by less that 1% of the vote.

1008. Triangle Shirtwaist Company Fire

A fire in New York's Triangle Shirtwaist Company in 1911 killed 146 people, mostly women. They died because the doors were locked and the windows were too high for them to get to the ground. Dramatized the poor working conditions and let to federal regulations to protect workers.

1009. Anti-Saloon League

National organization set up in 1895 to work for prohibition. Later joined with the WCTU to publicize the effects of drinking.

1010. Square Deal

Roosevelt used this term to declare that he would use his powers as president to safeguard the rights of the workers.

1011. Newlands Reclamation Act, 1902

Authorized the use of federal money to develop the west, it helped to protect national resources.

1012. Forest Reserve Act, 1891

First national forest conservation policy, authorized the president to set aside areas of land for national forests.

1013. Anthracite Coal Strike, 1902, George F. Baer

Large strike by coal miners. Baer led the miner's union at the time.

1014. Elkins Act, 1903, rebates

This strengthened earlier federal legislation that outlawed preferential pricing through rebates. Rebates are returns of parts of the amount paid for goods or services, serving as a reduction or discount. This act also prohibited railroads from transporting goods they owned. As a dodge around previous legislation, railroads were buying goods and transporting them as if they were their own.

1015. Hepburn Act, 1906

It imposed stricter control over railroads and expanded powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission, including giving the ICC the power to set maximum rates.

1016. Mann-Elkins Act, 1910

Signed by Taft, it bolstered the regulatory powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission and supported labor reforms. It gave the ICC the power to prosecute its own inquiries into violations of its regulations.

1017. "Trustbuster"

Nicknamed for Teddy Roosevelt, this is a federal official who seeks to dissolve monopolistic trusts through vigorous enforcement of antitrust laws.

1018. Northern Securities Company case

The Supreme Court ordered this company to dissolve because it was a trust.

1019. Meat Inspection Act

1906 - Laid down binding rules for sanitary meat packing and government inspection of meat products crossing state lines.

1020. Upton Sinclair, The Jungle

The author who wrote a book about the horrors of food productions in 1906, the bad quality of meat and the dangerous working conditions.

1021. Pure Food and Drug Act

1906 - Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.

1022. Conservation Conference, 1908

An environmental conference to study the nation's natural resources and how to conserve them.

1023. Panic of 1907

Caused by mistrust for and lowered confidence in bankers.

1024. Election of 1908

Taft, Republican, won over Byran, Democrat, because of his support of Roosevelt.

1025. Mark Hanna (1839-1904)

Prominent Republican senator and businessman, he was Republican campaign manager.

1026. Scientific Management, Frederick W. Taylor

1911 - Increased industrial output by rationalizing and refining the production process.

1027. Wisconsin, "Laboratory of Democracy"

Wisconsin was called the "Laboratory of Democracy" because many of the reform ideas of the Progressive era came out of Wisconsin, specifically from Robert M. LaFollette.

1028. Robert M. LaFollette (1855-1925)

A great debater and political leader who believed in libertarian reforms, he was a major leader of the Progressive movement from Wisconsin.

1029. Regulatory commissions

Formed to set safety standards and to enforce fair practices of business competition for the sake of the U.S. public.

1030. Florence Kelley, consumerism

Founded the National Consumer's League, which wanted legislation to protect consumers from being cheated or harmed by big business.

1031. Home Rule for cities

The idea was that the people of a city should decide how the city is run.

1032. Tom Johnson, Sam (Golden Rule) Jones, Brand Witlock, Hazen Pingree

Mayors for social reform, they wanted a reform of values over more legislation.

1033. City Manager Plan, Commission Plan

Legislation designed to break up political machines and replace traditional political management of cities with trained professional urban planners and managers.

1034. William Howard Taft

27th President (1908-1912), he was the only man to serve as both President of the U.S. and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Overweight, he was the only president to get stuck in the White House bathtub. Roosevelt supported he in 1908, but later ran against him.

1035. Department of Labor

Originally started in 1903 as the Department of Commerce and Labor, it was combined with the Bureau of Corporations in 1913 to create the Department of Labor

1036. Payne-Aldrich Tariff, 1909

With the fear of foreign competition gone, it lowered rates to 38%. Democrats felt it did not go far enough and passed the Underwood Tariff in 1913 to further lower taxes.

1037. Ballinger-Pinchot Controversy

Cabinet members who had fought over conservation efforts and how much effort and money should be put into conserving national resources. Pinchot, head of the Forestry Department, accused Ballinger, Secretary of the Interior, of abandoning federal conservation policy. Taft sided with Ballinger and fired Pinchot.

1038. Uncle Joe Cannon (1836-1926), Old Guard

Speaker of the House, he could make or break legislation form 1903 to 1910. He represented the Old Guard, which controlled Congress, and his arbitrary tactics led to the adoption of resolutions in 1910 limiting the power of the Speaker.

1039. Senator George Norris (1861-1944)

Congressman from Nebraska, he was a reformer Republican who helped lead the rules change of 1910 which ended the arbitrary power of the Speaker. Known as the father of the Tennessee Valley Authority, he was author of the 20th Amendment. Later, while in the Senate, he was an isolationist who tried to keep the U.S. out of WW I.

1040. Rule of Reason: Standard Oil case, American Tobacco case

1911 - Supreme Court allowed restrictions on competition through the Sherman Anti-Trust Act.

1041. "Dollar Diplomacy"

Taft and Knox cam up with it to further foreign policy in the U.S. in 1909-1913 under the Roosevelt Corollary. It was meant to avoid military intervention by giving foreign countries monetary aid.

1042. Secretary of State Knox (1853-1920)

Developed dollar diplomacy with Taft, he encouraged and protected U.S. investment abroad.

1043. Manchurian Railroad Scheme

The U.S. planned to build a railroad to transport American products into China. It would have allowed the U.S. to corner the China market.

1044. Roosevelt's Osawatomie, Kansas speech

Teddy Roosevelt's speech given in Kansas on his Square Deal and "Big Stick" foreign policy. Roosevelt said, "speak softly and carry a big stick."

1045. Taft-Roosevelt split

They split over idealogy. Roosevelt believed in breaking up "bad" trusts while allowing "good" trusts to continue. Taft opposed all trusts. Roosevelt wanted more involvement in foreign affairs, and Taft was an isolationist. Roosevelt ran against Taft in 1912.

1046. Bull Moose Party

The Progressive Party, it was Roosevelt's party in the 1912 election. He ran as a Progressive against Republican Taft, beating him but losing to Democrat Woodrow Wilson.

1047. Woodrow Wilson, New Freedom

He believed that monopolies had to be broken up and that the government must regulate business. He believed in competition, and called his economic plan "New Freedom."

1048. Theodore Roosevelt, New Nationalism

A system win which government authority would be balanced and coordinate economic activity. Government would regulate business.

1049. Herbert Croly, The Promise of American Life

Editor who wrote The Promise of American Life about government authority being used to balance economic activity. This was the basis for Theodore Roosevelt's "New Nationalism."

1050. Election of 1912: Wilson, Roosevelt, Taft, Debs, issues

Wilson, Democrat beat Roosevelt, Progressive (Bull Moose), Taft, Republican and Debs, Socialist. The issues were the economy and growing conflict in Europe.

1051. Daniel DeLeon, IWW, Wobblies, "Big Bull" Haywood

DeLeon denounced populists because they believed in free enterprise. Haywood was the leader of the Wobblies. The International Workers of the World (Wobblies) were a militant, radical union. They favored socialism and opposed free enterprise. They were disliked by big business and less radical unions.

1052. Pujo Committee

A committee formed to decide the fate of the Philippine Islands after the Spanish-American War.

1053. Federal Reserve Act

Regulated banking to help small banks stay in business. A move away from laissez-faire policies, it was passed by Wilson.

1054. Underwood-Simmons Tariff

October 13, 1913 - Lowered tariffs on hundreds of items that could be produced more cheaply in the U.S. than abroad.

1055. Income tax

The first step toward building government revenues and redistributing wealth, a tax that was levied on annual income over a specific amount and with certain legally permitted deductions.

1056. Federal Trade Commission, Cease and Desist Orders

A government agency established in 1914 to prevent unfair business practices and help maintain a competitive economy.

1057. Clayton Antitrust Act, labor's Magna Carta

1914 - Extended the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 to give it more power against trusts and big business. It outlawed practices that had a dangerous likelihood of creating a monopoly, even if no unlawful agreement was involved.

1058. Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan (1860-1925)

Served as Secretary of State under Wilson from 1913-1915, he resigned in protest of U.S. involvement in WW I.

1059. Arbitration Treaties

Negotiated by U.S. using arbitration, the mediation of a dispute, Taft promoted these agreements as an alternative to war in Latin America and Asia.

1060. Panama tolls dispute

Dispute over canal toll charge between the U.S. and Panama.

1061. Colonel House

He was openly pro-British and was sent to Europe by Wilson to mediate. He would tolerate no interference in matters of foreign policy.

1062. Louis Brandeis (1856-1941), "Brandeis Brief"

A lawyer and jurist, he created the "Brandeis Brief," which succinctly outlines the facts of the case and cites legal precedents, in order to persuade the judge to make a certain ruling.

1063. LaFollette Seaman's Act

LaFollette was a major leader of the Progressive movement from Wisconsin. He protested the cruel treatment that sailors received and led the fight for this act.

1064. Federal Highways Act, 1916

Passed by Wilson, it provided federal money to build roads. It helped to provide competition to the railroads' monopoly on public transportation.

1065. Adamson Act, 1916

Wilson pushed passage of this act which mandated an eight hour workday and time and a half for overtime.

1066. Smith-Lever Act, Smith-Hughes Act

1917-Established the U.S.'s first Food Administration with the authority to fix food prices, license distributors, coordinate purchases, oversee exports, act against hoarding and profiteering, and encourage farmers to grow more crops.

1067. Virgin Islands Purchased

1917 - U.S. bought them from Denmark and built a naval base to protect the Panama Canal and to prevent Germany's seizure of islands during WWI.

1068. Jones Act, 1916 (Philippine)

Promised Philippine independence. Given freedom in 1917, their economy grew as a satellite of the U.S. Filipino independence was not realized for 30 years.

1069. Jones Act, 1917 (Puerto Rico)

1917 - Puerto Ricans won U.S. citizenship and the right to elect their own upper house.

1070. Mexican Revolution, Diaz, Huerta, Carranza

Diaz was ruler of Mexico for 34 years, and caused much terror and bloodshed. Many people fled to the U.S. to plan a revolution. Huerta, in 1913, overthrew Diaz as dictator and had him murdered. Carranza was the leader of the forces against Huerta. The Mexican Revolution was an unstable situation that led to distrust between the U.S. and Mexico.

1071. Mexican Migration to the U.S.

In the 1800's, Mexicans began moving north to work in agriculture. In the 1920's, they moved into the cities. Men outnumbered women. They faced racial discrimination from Whites.

1072. "Watchful Waiting"

Often said by President Monroe during the U.S.'s isolationism period, when the U.S. was trying to stay out of the affairs of other countries in order to avoid war.

1073. ABC Powers

1899 - Name given to Argentina, Brazil and Chile. They tried to maintain peace in South and Central America.

1074. Pancho Villa, General Pershing

1916 - Villa attacked Columbus, New Mexico and Pershing was directed to follow him into Mexico. Pershing met with resistance and eventually left without finding Pancho Villa.

1075. Archangel Expedition

1917 - U.S. sent troops to the Soviet cities of Murmansk and Archangel to reinforce White Russians (non-Communists). The U.S. troops did not fight Communists, but instead defended the ports.

1076. "Sick Man of Europe," Ottoman Empire, Balkan Wars

Because the Ottoman Empire's internal authority had broken down, it was not able to keep order in Macedonia and Albania, and the Balkans were on the verge of war. After the second Balkan war, Bulgaria was forced to surrender much of the territory it won in the first Balkan war.

1077. Triple Entente; Allies

Britain, France and Russia all had economic and territorial ambitions and they all disliked Germany, so they formed an alliance for protection.

1078. Triple Alliance; Central Powers

Germany, Austria and Hungary formed an alliance for protection from the Triple Entente.

1079. Loans to the Allies

During WWII, loans were offered under the Lend-Lease Act, which became law March 11, 1914. The U.S. spent $54 billion.

1080. British blockade

Declared a loose, ineffectual and hence illegal blockade, it defined a broad list of contraband which was not to be shipped to Germany by neutral countries.

1081. Lusitania, Arabic Pledge, Sussex Pledge

May 7, 1915 - British passenger ships were regularly sunk by German subs, but the Lusitania had Americans aboard and brought the U.S. into the war. Germany promised to stop submarine warfare.

1082. Election of 1916: Hughes, Wilson, issues

The Democrats emphasized a program of domestic reform. Charles Evans Hughes left the Supreme Court to challenge Wilson, a democrat.

1083. Unrestricted submarine warfare

This was the German practice of attacking any and all shipping to countries it was at war with. It annoyed neutral countries.

1084. Zimmerman note

1917 - Germany sent this to Mexico instructing an ambassador to convince Mexico to go to war with the U.S. It was intercepted and caused the U.S. to mobilized against Germany, which had proven it was hostile.

1085. Russian Revolutions, 1917, March and Bolshevik

After years of oppression, the peasants rebelled against the czars. The first government was democratic and weak, so another revolution overthrew that government and instituted a Communist government lead by the Bolshevik party under Lenin. Lenin pulled Russia out of WWI (The Germans may have aided his rise to power so they would not have to fight on two fronts).

1086. War declared, April 1917

U.S. declared war on Germany due to the Zimmerman telegram and the attack on the Lusitania.

1087. "Make the world safe for democracy"

Wilson gave this as a reason for U.S. involvement in WWI.

1088. Creel Committee

Headed by George Creel, this committee was in charge of propaganda for WWI (1917-1919). He depicted the U.S. as a champion of justice and liberty.

1089. Bond drives

Campaigns to get people to but government war bonds to finance the war, people traveled around America selling them and it was extremely successful in raising funds.

1090. War Industries Board

The most powerful agency of the war, it had to satisfy the allied needs for goods and direct American industries in what to produce.

1091. Bernard Baruch

Millionaire, he headed the War Industries Board after 1918.

1092. Herbert Hoover, Food Administration

He led the Food Administration and started many programs to streamline food production and distribution.

1093. Espionage Act, 1917; Sedition Act, 1918

Brought forth under the Wilson administration, they stated that any treacherous act or draft dodging was forbidden, outlawed disgracing the government, the Constitution, or military uniforms, and forbade aiding the enemy.

1094. Eugene V. Debs imprisoned

Debs repeatedly ran for president as a socialist, he was imprisoned after he gave a speech protesting WWI in violation of the Sedition Act.

1095. AEF

American Expeditionary Force was the first American ground troops to reach the European front. Commanded by Pershing, they began arriving in France in the summer of 1917.

1096. Selective service 1917

Stated that all men between the ages of 20 and 45 had to be registered for possible military service. Used in case draft became necessary.

1097. Black migration to northern cities

During WWI, southern Blacks began to move north, where there were more jobs and less racism. The increased number of Blacks led to a White backlash and conditions like Southern racism.

1098. Aims of Allies and U.S. at Peach Conference

Allies wanted Germany to pay reparation for costs of war. Wilson brought 14 points, but only one was accomplished. The harsh punishment sent Germany into a depression and aided the rise of Hitler.

1099. Wartime manpower losses

WWI involved violent, modern weapons and old fighting styles. With so many men at war, nations needed other people to work in the factories and other wartime industries.

1100. Fourteen Points

Wilson's idea that he wanted included in the WWI peace treaty, including freedom of the seas and the League of Nations.

1101. Congressional elections of 1918

The 66th Congress, under President Wilson. He begged people to elect Democrats so that they could support his foreign policy initiatives in Congress, but the public rejected him. The senate had 47 Democrats and 49 Republicans and the House had 216 Democrats, 210 Republicans and 6 others.

1102. Versailles Conference, Versailles Treaty

The Palace of Versailles was the site of the signing of the peace treaty that ended WW I on June 28, 1919. Victorious Allies imposed punitive reparations on Germany.

1103. Versailles Delegation

Led by Wilson, it fought for the inclusion of the 14 Points. Only one to be included was the League of Nations.

1104. Big Four: Wilson, George, Clemenceau, Orlando

Leaders of the four most influential countries after World War I - U.S., Britain, France and Italy, respectively.

1105. League of Nations

Devised by President Wilson, it reflected the power of large countries. Although comprised of delegates from every country, it was designed to be run by a council of the five largest countries. It also included a provision for a world court.

1106. Collective Security

An Article 10 provision of the League charter, it stated that if one country was involved in a confrontation, other nations would support it. Collective security is agreements between countries for mutual defense and to discourage aggression.

1107. New Nations, self determination

After WW I, Germany, Eastern Europe and the western portion of the former Russian Empire split into new countries. Wilson wanted them to have their own governments.

1108. Reparations

As part of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was ordered to pay fines to the Allies to repay the costs of the war. Opposed by the U.S., it quickly lead to a severe depression in Germany.

1109. Mandate system

A half-way system between outright imperial domination and independence, it was used to split Germany's empire after WW I.

1110. Article 10 (Article X) of the Versailles Treaty

Created the League of Nations.

1111. Article 231 of the Versailles Treaty

One of the more controversial articles, it dealt with the legal liability of Germany vs. the moral liability.

1112. Senate rejection, Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, reservations

Lodge was against the League of Nations, so he packed the foreign relations committee with critics and was successful in convincing the Senate to reject the treaty.

1113. "Irreconcilables": Borah, Johnson, LaFollette

Some Senators would have been willing to support the League of Nations if certain reservations were made to the treaty. The "Irreconcilables" voted against the League of Nations with or without reservations.

1114. Red Scare, Palmer raids

In 1919, the Communist Party was gaining strength in the U.S., and Americans feared Communism. In January, 1920, Palmer raids in 33 cities broke into meeting halls and homes without warrants. 4,000 "Communists" were jailed, some were deported.

1115. Strikes: 1919, coal, steel, police

In September, 1919, Boston police went on strike, then 350,000 steel workers went on strike. This badly damaged the unions.

1116. Inflation during WW I

Caused by increased taxes and the government borrowing money directly from citizens.

1117. Election of 1920: candidates, issues

Republican, Warren G. Harding, with V.P. running mate Coolidge, beat Democrat, Governor James Cox, with V.P. running mate, FDR. The issues were WW I, the post-war economy and the League of Nations.

1118. Brief depression, 1920-1921

Two years after WW I, prices went up and consumers stopped buying. Unemployment rose from 2% to 12% and industry and export trade halted.

1119. Election of 1920: candidates, issues, vice-presidential candidates

Republican, Warren G. Harding, with V.P. running mate Coolidge, beat Democrat, Governor James Cox, with V.P. running mate, FDR. The issues were WW I, the post-war economy and the League of Nations.

1120. Normalcy

Harding wanted a return to "normalcy" - the way life was before WW I.

1121. Esch-Cummins Transportation Act

Provided for the return of railroads to private control, widened powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission.

1122. Harding scandals: Charles Forbes

Forbes served time for fraud and bribery in connection with government contracts. He took millions of dollars from the Veteran's Bureau.

1123. Harding scandals: Harry Daugherty

Daugherty was implicated for accepting bribes.

1124. Harding scandals: Secretary of the Interior Fall

Fall leased government land to the oil companies (Teapot Dome Scandal) and was convicted of accepting a bribe.

1125. Harding scandals: Teapot Dome

1929 - The Naval strategic oil reserve at Elk Hills, also known as "Teapot Dome" was taken out of the Navy's control and placed in the hands of the Department of the Interior, which leased the land to oil companies. Several Cabinet members received huge payments as bribes. Due to the investigation, Daugherty, Denky, and Fall were forced to resign.

1126. Harding scandals: Harry Sinclair

He leased government land to the oil companies and was forced to resign due to the investigation. He was acquitted on the bribery charges.

1127. Harding's death, Coolidge takes over

August 2, 1923 - President Harding died and Vice President Calvin Coolidge took over.

1128. Bureau of the Budget

Created in 1921, its primary task is to prepare the Annual Budget for presentation every January. It also controls the administration of the budget, improving it and encouraging government efficiency.

1129. Secretary of the Treasury Mellon, tax cuts

An American financier, he was appointed Secretary of the Treasury by President Harding in 1921 and served under Coolidge and Hoover. While he was in office, the government reduced the WW I debt by $9 billion and Congress cut income tax rates substantially. He is often called the greatest Secretary of the Treasury after Hamilton.

1130. Senator George Norris (1861-1944), Muscle Shoals

He served in Congress for 40 years and is often called the Father of the Tennessee Valley Authority, a series of dams and power plants designed to bring electricity to some of the poorest areas of the U.S., like Appalachia.

1131. Election of 1924: candidates

With Republican Coolidge running against Democrat Davis and Progressive LaFollette, the liberal vote was split between the Democrat and the Progressive, allowing Coolidge to win.

1132. Robert M. LaFollette (1855-1925)

A great debater and political leader who believed in libertarian reforms, he was a major leader of the Progressive movement from Wisconsin.

1133. Progressive Party

The popular name of the "People's Party," formed in the 1890's as a coalition of Midwest farm groups, socialists, and labor organizations, such as the American Federation of Labor. It attacked monopolies, and wanted other reforms, such as bimetallism, transportation regulation, the 8-hour work day, and income tax.

1134. McNary-Haugen Bill, vetos

The bill was a plan to raise the prices of farm products. The government could buy and sell the commodities at world price and tariff. Surplus sold abroad. It was vetoes twice by Coolidge. It was the forerunner of the 1930's agricultural programs.

1135. Federal Farm Board

Agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, it offered farmers insurance against loss of crops due to drought, flood, or freeze. It did not guarantee profit or cover losses due to bad farming.

1136. Election of 1928: candidates, personalities, backgrounds

Herbert Hoover, the Republican, was a Quaker from Iowa, orphaned at 10, who worked his way through Stanford University. He expounded nationalism and old values of success through individual hard work. Alfred E. Smith, the Democrat, was a Catholic from New York, of immigration stock and advocated social reform programs.

1137. Bruce Barton, The Man Nobody Knows, 1925

Advertising executive Barton called Jesus the "founder of modern business" because he picked men up from the bottom ranks and built a successful empire.

1138. Henry L. Mencken, editor of the magazine, The American Mercury

In 1924, founded The American Mercury, which featured works by new writers and much of Mencken's criticism on American taste, culture, and language. He attacked the shallowness and conceit of the American middle class.

1139. "The Lost Generation"

Writer Gertrude Stein named the new literary movement when she told Hemingway, "You are all a lost generation," referring to the many restless young writers who gathered in Paris after WW I. Hemingway used the quote in The Sun Also Rises. They thought that the U.S. was materialistic and the criticized conformity.

1140. F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby

Most critics regard this as his finest work. Written in 1925, it tells of an idealist who is gradually destroyed by the influence of the wealthy, pleasure-seeking people around him.

1141. Sinclair Lewis, Main Street, Babbit

He gained international fame for his novels attacking the weakness in American society. The first American to win the Nobel Prize for literature, Main Street (1920) was a satire on the dullness and lack of culture in a typical American town. Babbit (1922) focuses on a typical small business person's futile attempts to break loose from the confinements in the life of an American citizen.

1142. Theodore Dreiser, An American Tragedy

Foremost American writer in the Naturalism movement, this book, written in 1925, criticized repressive, hypocritical society. It tells about a weak young man trying unsuccessfully to rise out of poverty into upper class society who is executed for the murder of his pregnant girlfriend.

1143. Ernest Hemingway, A Farewell to Arms

He received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1954 and the Pulitzer Prize in 1952. A Farewell to Arms was written in 1929 and told the story of a love affair between an American ambulance driver and a British nurse in Italy during WW I.

1144. T.S. Elliot, "The Waste Land"

One of the most influential poets of the early 20th century, he had been born in St. Louis, Missouri, but moved to England after college and spent his adult life in Europe. The poem, written in 1922, contrasts the spiritual bankruptcy of modern Europe with the values and unity of the past. Displayed profound despair. Considered the foundation of modernist, 20th century poetry.

1145. Sigmund Freud's Theories

An Austrian physician with new ideas on the human mind. One of the founders of the modern science of psychiatry, discovered the subconscious. Believed that the mind is divided into 3 parts: id - primitive impulse; ego - reason which regulates between the id and reality; and superego - morals.

1146. KDKA, Pittsburgh

One of the first radio stations to pioneer in commercial radio broadcasting in 1920. By 1922 there were 508 radio stations.

1147. Prohibition, Volstead Act, Al Capone

Prohibition - 1919: the 18th Amendment outlawed the manufacture or sale of intoxicating liquors. Volstead Act - 1919: Defined what drinks constituted "intoxicating liquors" under the 18th Amendment, and set penalties for violations of prohibition. Al Capone: In Chicago, he was one of the most famous leaders of organized crime of the era.

1148. Ku Klux Klan in the 1920's

Based on the post-Civil War terrorist organization, the Invisible Empire of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan was founded in Georgia in 1915 by William Simmons to fight the growing "influence" of blacks, Jews and Catholics in US society. It experienced phenomenal growth in the 1920's, especially in the Midwest and Ohio Valley states. It's peak membership came in 1924 at 3 million members, but its reputation for violence led to rapid decline by 1929.

1149. Fundamentalists

Broad movement in Protestantism in the U.S. which tried to preserve what it considered the basic ideas of Christianity against criticism by liberal theologies. It stressed the literal truths of the Bible and creation.

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