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carbohydrates

a molecule composed of sugar subunits that contain carbon hydrogen and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio

polymers

a molecule composed of three or more subunits

monosaccharides

a single sugar unit

disaccharide

a sugar formed by the joining of two monosaccharide subunits

dehydration synthesis

the process which larger molecules are formed by the removal of water from two smaller molecules

hydrolosis

the process by which larger molecules are split into smaller molecules by the addition of water

polysaccharide

a carbohydrate composed of many single sugar subunits

starch

a plant carbohydrate used to store energy

glycogen

the form of carbohydrate storage in animals

cellulose

a plant polysaccharide that makes up plant cell walls

triglyceride

a lipid composed of glycerol and three fatty acids

oil

a lipid composed of glycerol and unsaturated fatty acids liquid at room temperature

fat

lipid composed of glycerol and unsaturated fatty acids solid at room temperature

phospholipid

a lipid with a phosphate molecule attached to the glycerol back bone making the molecule polar the major components of cell membranes

wax

a long chain lipid that is insoluble in water

proteins

a chain of amino acids that form the structural parts of cells or aact as antibodies or enzymes

amino acids

a chemical that contains nitrogen and they link together to form protein

peptide bond

the bond that joins to amino acids

polypeptide

a chain of three or more amino acids

essential amino acid

an amino acid that must be obtained from the diet

denaturation

the process that ocurrs when the bonds of a protein molecule are disrupted causing the temporary change in shape

coagulation

the process that occurs when the bonds of a protein molecule are disrupted causing a permanent change in shape

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