APUSH WW2/Cold War

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1251. Schecter Poultry Corp. v. U.S.

May, 1935 - The U.S. Supreme Court declared the National Industrial Recovery Act unconstitutional. It held that Condress had improperly delegated legislative authority to the National Industrial Recovery Administration and that the federal government had exceeded its jurisduction because Schecter was not engaged in interstate commerce.

1252. Butler case

1936 - Declared AAA unconstitutional because it involved Congress levying a tax against the general wellfare.

1253. NLRB v. Jones and Laughlin Steel Corp.

April 1937 - Sumpreme Court upheld the Wagner Act, ensuring the right to unionize, in a 5 to 4 decision. This decision signaled a change in the Court's attitude towards support of the New Deal and lead FDR to abandon his court-packing plan.

1254. West Coast Hotel v. Parrish

1937 - Supreme Court upheld the Washington state minum wage statute.

1255. Darby Lumber Co. case

1941 - Overruled the Hamme case of 1918 by upholding the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938.

1256. Curtiss-Wright Export Corp. case

1936 - Upheld embargo impossed on arms destined for nations at war in the "Chaco War" that had broken out in 1932 between Bolivia and Paraguay.

1257. Montevideo Conference

The first of several Pan-America conferences held during the period between World War I and World War II concerning mutual defense and corporate between the countries of Latin America. The U.S. renounced the right to intervene in the affairs of Latin American countries.

1258. Rio de Janeiro Conference

1933 - Delegation of 21 Latin American leaders, including Summer Will and Aswalina Avanna. Led to the break in diplomatic relations between the U.S. and the Latin American powers.

1259. Buenos Aires Conference

1936 - The U.S. agreed to submit all disputes from the Americas to arbitration.

1260. Lima Conference

1938 - Last of the Pan-American conferences held before the outbreak of World War II. Issued the Declaration of Lima asserting the unity of the Latin American nations and their determination to resist al forms of foreign agression.

1261. Declaration of Panama

1939 - Latin American governments drew a security line around the Western hemisphere and warned away foreign agressors.

1262. Act of Havana

1940 - Approved by the 21 delegates of the Pan-American Union. Declared that any Latin American nation was permitted, in the name of defense, to take over and administer any European possession in the New World.

1263. Jones Act

1916 - Promised Philippine independence. Given freedom in 1917, their economy grew as a satellite of the U.S. Filipino independence was not realized for 30 years.

1264. Tydings-McDuffie Act, 1934, Philippines

In 1933 the U.S. had proposed granting the Philippines independence in 12 years while retaining its military bases there. The Philippines rejected the offer and asked for immediate commonwealth status with independence by 1946. The U.S. accepted their offer in the Tydings-McDuffie Act.

1265. Nye Committee

Gerald Nye of North Dakota believed that the U.S. should stay out of foreign wars.

1266. "Merchants of Death"

Liberal isolationists' term for companies which manufactured armaments. They felt that the companies were undermining national interests by assisting agressor nations.

1267. Neutrality legislation

1935 - Upon the outbreak of war, all American exports would be embargoed for 6 months. 1936 - Gave the president the authority to determine when a state of war existed and prohibited loans to beligerents. 1937 - Gave the president the authority to determine whether a civil war was a threat to world peace and prohibited arms sales to beligerents.

1268. Spanish Civil War (1936-1935), Franco

Spain had established a leftist, democratic government in the 1930s. In July, 1936, Gen. Fransisco Franco and other army leaders staged a coup and installed a right-wing fascist government, touching off a civil war between loyalist Republican forces (aided by Russia) and Franco's Fascist party (aided by Mussolini and Hitler).

1269. Ethiopia

Mussolini invaded, conquering it in 1936. The League of Nations failed to take any effective action against Mussolini, and the U.S. just looked on.

1270. Mussolini (1883-1945)

Fascist dictator of Italy from 1922-1943. Wanted to recreate the Roman Empire.

1271. Japan attacks China, Chiang Kai-Shek

Chinese leader Kai-Shek defeated the Communists in China, sending them back to Russia and instituting the Kuomintang government. Then in 1931, Japan seized Manchuria from China.

1272. Panay Incident

1937 - On the Yantze River in China, Japanese aircraft sank an American gunboat escorting tankers. The U.S. accepted Japan's appologies.

1273. Quarantine Speech

1937 - In this speech Franklin D. Roosevelt compared Fascist agression to a contagious disease, saying democracies must unite to quarantine agressor nations.

1274. Adolf Hitler (1889-1945), Nazism

German facist dictator. Leader of the National Socialist Workers Party, or Nazis. Elected Chancellor of Germany in 1933, he quickly established himself as an absolute dictator.

1275. Munich Conference, appeasement, Neville Chamberlain

1938 - Hitler wanted to annex the Sudetenland, a portion of Czechoslovakia whose inhabitents were mostly German-speaking. On Sept. 29, Germany, Italy, France, and Great Britain signed the Munich Pact, which gave Germany the Sudetenland. British Prime Minister Chamberlain justified the pact with the belief that appeasing Germany would prevent war.

1276. Austria annexed

March 12, 1938 - After the Austrian leader resigned under growing Nazi pressure, German troops set up a government called the Ansehluss, which was a union of Germany and Austria.

1277. Nonagression pact between Germany and U.S.S.R.

August 23, 1939 - Germany and Russia agreed not to attack each other, which allowed Hitler to open up a second front in the West without worrying about defending against Russia. Granted Western Poland ot Germany, but allowed Russia to occupy Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and Eastern Poland. Hitler intended to break the pact.

1278. Invasion of Poland, Blitzkrieg

September, 1939 - Germany used series of "lightning campaigns" to conquer Poland. The invasion caused Great Britain and France to declare war on Germany.

1279. Axis Powers

A series of treaties in 1936 and 37 between Germany, Italy, and Japan created what was called the "Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis." The coutries were thereafter refered to as the Axis Powers.

1280. "Cash and carry" revision of neutrality

Stated the warring nations wishing to trade with the U.S. would have to pay cash and carry the goods away in their own ships. Benefitted the Allies, since German ships could not reach the U.S. due to the Allied blockades.

1281. Fall of France

Summer, 1941 - Germany invaded France and set up the Vichey government, which lasted until the Allies invaded in 1944.

1282. America First Committee

1940 - Formed by die-hard isolationists who feared the U.S. going to war.

1283. Isolationism, Charles Lindbergh

Lindbergh, known for making the first solo flight across the Atlantic, became politically controversial because he was an isolationist and pro-Germany.

1284. Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies

1940 - Formed by isolationists who believed that the U.S. could avoid going to war by giving aid in the form of supplies and money to the Allies, who would fight the war for us.

1285. Smith Act

Required fingerprinting and registering of all aliens in the U.S. and made it a crime to teach or advocate the violent overthrow of the U.S. government.

1286. Tojo (Hideki)

Prime Minister of Japan (1941-1944) and leading advocate of Japanese military conquest during World War II.

1287. Destroyer Deal

1940 - U.S. agreed to "lend" its older destroyers to Great Britain. (Destroyers were major warships that made up the bulk of most countries' navies.) Signaled the end of U.S. neutrality in the war.

1288. Election of 1940: candidates, issues

Democrat - Franklin D. Roosevelt, Republican - Wendel Wrillkie (lost by almost 5 million votes). The issue was the New Deal, about which there was a major debate.

1289. "Lend lease" March 1941

Authorized the president to transfer, lend, or lease any article of defense equipment ot any government whose defense was deemed vital to the defense of the U.S. Allowed the U.S. to send supplies and ammunition to the Allies without technically becoming a co-belligerent.

1290. Atlantic Charter

August 1941 - Drawn up br FDR and Churchill with eight main principles: Renunciation of territorial agression No territorial changes without the consent of the peoples concerned Restoration of sovereign rights and self-government Access to raw material for all nations World economic cooperation Freedom from fear and want Freedom of the seas Disarmament of agressors

1291. Pearl Harbor 7:50-10:00 AM, December 7, 1941

Surprise attack by the Japanese on the main U.S. Pacific Fleet harbored in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii destroyed 18 U.S. ships and 200 aircraft. American losses were 3000, Japanese losses less than 100. In response, the U.S. declared war on Japan and Germany, entering World War II.

1292. Japanese relocation

The bombing of Pearl Harbor created widespread fear that the Japanese living in the U.S. were actually spies. FDR issued executive order 9066, which moved all Japanese and people of Japanese descent living on the west coast of the U.S. into internment camps in the interior of the U.S.

1293. Bond drives

Celebrities and government representatives traveled around the U.S. selling government bonds ot raise money for the war effort. Extremely successful in raising funds.

1294. War Production Board

Converted factories from civilian to military production. Manufacturing output tripled.

1295. War Labor Board

Acted as a supreme court for labor cases. Did more harm than good when it tried to limit wages, which led to strikes.

1296. Office of Price Administration (OPA)

Government agency which successful combatted inflation by fixing price ceilings on commodities and introducing rationing programs during World War II.

1297. General Dwight D. Eisenhower (1870-1969)

Served as the supreme commander of the western Allied forces and became chief of staff in 1941. Sent to Great Britain in 1942 as the U.S. commander in Europe.

1298. General Douglas MacArthur

Military governor of the Philippines, which Japan invaded a few days after the Pearl Harbor attack. MacArthur escaped to Australia in March 1942 and was appointed supreme commander of the Allied forces in the Pacific. Recieved the Medal of Honor.

1299. Genocide, "Final Solution"

Genocide is destruction of a racial group. Hitler's "Final Solution" was the genocide of non-Aryan peoples.

1300. Second front

The Russians were suffering heavy casualties fighting the German invasion of Russia. Stalin urged the Allies to open a "second front" in the west to relieve the pressure on the Russians. The Allies did so, but only after a long delay.

1301. D-Day

June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.

1302. Stalingrad

Site of critical World War II Soviet victory that reversed Germany's advance to the East. In late 1942, Russian forces surrounded the Germans, and on Feb. 2, 1943, the German Sixth Army surrendered. First major defeat for the Germans in World War II.

1303. Winston Churchill

Prime minister of Great Britain during World War II.

1304. Casablanca Conference

Jan. 14-23, 1943 - FDR and Chruchill met in Morocco to settle the future strategy of the Allies following the success of the North African campaign. They decided to launch an attack on Italy through Sicily before initiating an invasion into France over the English Channel. Also announced that the Allies would accept nothing less than Germany's unconditional surrender to end the war.

1305. Cairo Conference

November, 1943 - A meeting of Allied leaders Roosevelt, Churchill, and Chiang Kai-Shek in Egypt to define the Allies goals with respect to the war against Japan, they announced their intention to seek Japan's unconditional surrender and to strip Japan of all territory it had gained since WW I.

1306. Tehran Conference

December, 1943 - A meeting between FDR, Churchill and Stalin in Iran to discuss coordination of military efforts against Germany, they repeated the pledge made in the earlier Moscow Conference to create the United Nations after the war's conclusion to help ensure international peace.

1307. "Unconditional surrender

It means the victor decides all the conditions the loser must agree to. The Allies wanted Germany and Japan to agree to unconditional surrender.

1308. Okinawa

The U.S. Army in the Pacific had been pursuing an "island-hopping" campaign, moving north from Australia towards Japan. On April 1, 1945, they invaded Okinawa, only 300 miles south of the Japanese home islands. By the time the fighting ended on June 2, 1945, the U.S. had lost 50,000 men and the Japanese 100,000.

1309. Battle of the Bulge

December, 1944-January, 1945 - After recapturing France, the Allied advance became stalled along the German border. In the winter of 1944, Germany staged a massive counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg which pushed a 30 mile "bulge" into the Allied lines. The Allies stopped the German advance and threw them back across the Rhine with heavy losses.

1310. Manhattan Project

A secret U.S. project for the construction of the atomic bomb.

1311. Robert Oppenheimer (1904-1967)

Physics professor at U.C. Berkeley and CalTech, he headed the U.S. atomic bomb project in Los Alamos, New Mexico. He later served on the Atomic Energy Commission, although removed for a time the late 1950's, over suspicion he was a Communist sympathizer.

1312. Atomic bomb

A bomb that uses the fission of radioactive elements such as uranium or plutonium to create explosions equal to the force of thousands of pounds of regular explosives.

1313. Hiroshima, Nagasaki

First and second cities to be hit by atomic bombs, they were bombed after Japan refused to surrender and accept the Potsdam Declaration. Hiroshima was bombed on August 6, 1945 and Nagasaki was bombed on August 9, 1945.

1314. Yalta Conference

February, 1945 - Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta to make final war plans, arrange the post-war fate of Germany, and discuss the proposal for creation of the United Nations as a successor to the League of Nations. They announced the decision to divide Germany into three post-war zones of occupation, although a fourth zone was later created for France. Russia also agreed to enter the war against Japan, in exchange for the Kuril Islands and half of the Sakhalin Peninsula.

1315. Potsdam Conference

July 26, 1945 - Allied leaders Truman, Stalin and Churchill met in Germany to set up zones of control and to inform the Japanese that if they refused to surrender at once, they would face total destruction.

1316. Partitioning of Korea, Vietnam, Germany

The U.S. played a role in dividing these countries into sections, each of which would be ruled by different authority figures and managed by one of the Allied powers.

1317. Charles de Gaulle (1890-1970)

He formed the French resistance movement in London immediately after the French surrender at Vichy. He was elected President of the Free French government in exile during the war and he was the first provisional president of France after its liberation.

1318. Winston Churchill (1874-1965), "Iron Curtain" speech

March, 1946 - He reviewed the international response to Russian aggression and declared an "iron curtain" had descended across Eastern Europe.

1319. Joseph Stalin (1879-1953)

After Lenin died in 1924, he defeated Trotsky to gain power in the U.S.S.R. He created consecutive five year plans to expand heavy industry. He tried to crush all opposition and ruled as the absolute dictator of the U.S.S.R. until his death.

1320. Bretton Woods Conference

The common name for the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference held in New Hampshire, 44 nations at war with the Axis powers met to create a world bank to stabilize international currency, increase investment in under-developed areas, and speed the economic recovery of Europe.

1321. Dumbarton Oaks Conference

In a meeting near Washington, D.C., held from August 21 to October 7, 1944, U.S., Great Britain, U.S.S.R. and China met to draft the constitution of the United Nations.

1322. San Francisco Conference and U.N. Charter

1945 - This conference expanded the drafts of the Yalta and Dumbarton Oaks conferences and adopted the United Nations Charter.

1323. United Nations: Security Council, General Assembly, Secretary-General

Only the Security Council could take action on substantive issues through investigation. The General Assembly met and talked. A secretariat, headed by a Secretary-General, was to perform the organization's administrative work.

1324. Atomic Energy Commission

Created in 1946 to oversee the research and production of atomic power.

1325. Superpowers

The name give to the U.S.S.R. and the U.S. because of their dominance in the arms race and economic struggle for world power. Both countries had nuclear bombs by the late 1940's and 1950's.

1326. Socialism, Communism

Socialism is the social theory advocating community control of the means of production. Communism is the social system based on collective ownership of all productive property.

1327. Satellites

Eastern European countries conquered by the U.S.S.R. during the Cold War.

1328. Nuremberg trials

19 out of 22 German civil and military leaders were found guilty of "war crimes." 12 were sentenced to death, 3 to life sentences and the rest to five to twenty year sentences.

1329. Department of Defense created

Headed by McNamara, it succeeded in bringing the armed services under tight civilian control.

1330. Voice of America, CARE

Established in 1942 as part of the Office of War Information, since 1953 it has been the international radio network of the U.S. Information Agency.

1331. Yugoslavia, Marshall Tito

An election was held in 1945 in which the moderate candidates were not allowed to run. On November 29, 1945, the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia was proclaimed. Following the adoption of a new constitution, the assembly reconstituted itself into a parliament. Tito was the Premier of the cabinet.

1332. Czechoslovakian coup

1948 - Czechoslovakia succumbed to Soviet subversion. Although moderates and Communists shared power after WWII, in 1947-1948, fearing a loss of popular support, the Communists seized control of the government and the moderates gave in to avoid civil war.

1333. Containment, George F. Kennan

A member of the State Department, he felt that the best way to keep Communism out of Europe was to confront the Russians wherever they tried to spread their power.

1334. Truman Doctrine

1947 - Stated that the U.S. would support any nation threatened by Communism.

1335. Marshall Plan

Introduced by Secretary of State George G. Marshall in 1947, he proposed massive and systematic American economic aid to Europe to revitalize the European economies after WWII and help prevent the spread of Communism.

1336. Point Four

Program proposed by Truman to help the world's backwards areas.

1337. Israel created

1948 - In 1947 the UN General Assembly had approved the creation of a Jewish homeland by ending the British mandate in Palestine and partitioning it into two states: one Jewish and one Arab. On May 14, 1948, the Jews proclaimed the State of Israel, and all of the surrounding Arab nations declared war and invaded. After a short war, the Israelis gained control of the country.

1338. Berlin blockade

April 1, 1948 - Russia under Stalin blockaded Berlin completely in the hopes that the West would give the entire city to the Soviets to administer. To bring in food and supplies, the U.S. and Great Britain mounted air lifts which became so intense that, at their height, an airplane was landing in West Berlin every few minutes. West Germany was a republic under Franc, the U.S. and Great Britain. Berlin was located entirely within Soviet-controlled East Germany.

1339. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

Chartered April, 1949. The 11 member nations agreed to fight for each other if attacked. It is an international military force for enforcing its charter.

1340. Warsaw Pact

To counter the NATO buildup, the Soviets formed this military organization with the nations of Eastern Europe. Also gave Russia an excuse for garrisoning troops in these countries.

1341. Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) September, 1954

Alliance of non-Communist Asian nations modelled after NATO. Unlike NATO, it didn't establish a military force.

1342. Central Treaty Organization (CENTO)

Members were the U.S., Great Britain, Turkey, Iran and West Pakistan. Treaty to improve U.S. relations and cooperation with Latin and South America. Fairly successful, similar to ANZUS.

1343. Australia, New Zealand, U.S. (ANZUS)

Security alliance ratified in 1952 to protect against Communist China, Soviet Power, the war in Korea and Asia/Pacific decolonization.

1344. Collective security

An Article 10 provision of the League charter, it stated that if one country was involved in a confrontation, other nations would support it. Collective security is agreements between countries for mutual defense and to discourage aggression.

1345. Fall of China, Mao Tse-Tung (Mao Zedong)

Mao Tse-Tung led the Communists in China. Because of the failure to form a coalition government between Chiang Kai-Shek and the Communists, civil war broke out in China after WWII. The Communists won in 1949, but the new government was not recognized by much of the world, including the U.S.

1346. State Department White Paper

1949 - Set forth the State Department's efforts and future plans to stoop Communism. With regard to China, it declared the historic policy of the U.S. to be one of friendship and aid to the Chinese people, which would be maintained both in peace and war.

1347. Chiang Kai-Shek, Formosa

Chiang and the nationalists were forced to flee to Formosa, a large island off the southern coast of China, after the Communist victory in the civil war. Throughout the 1950's, the U.S. continued to recognize and support Chiang's government in Formosa as the legitimate government of China, and to ignore the existence of the Communist People's Republic on the mainland.

1348. Quemoy, Matsu

Small islands off the coast of China occupied by the nationalists and claimed by the People's Republic. Late in 1954, the U.S. hinted at defending them because they were considered vital to the defense of Formosa, even though they were not expressly covered by the mutual defense treaty.

1349. Korean War, limited war

After WWII, Korea had been partitioned along the 38th parallel into a northern zone governed by the Soviet Union, and a southern zone controlled by the U.S. In 1950, after the Russians had withdrawn, leaving a communist government in the North, the North invaded the South. The U.N. raised an international army led by the U.S. to stop the North. It was the first use of U.N. military forces to enforce international peace. Called a limited war, because the fighting was to be confined solely to the Korean peninsula, rather than the countries involved on each side attacking one another directly.

1350. Truman-MacArthur Controversy

Truman removed MacArthur from command in Korea as punishment for MacArthur's public criticism of the U.S. government's handling of the war. Intended to confirm the American tradition of civilian control over the military, but Truman's decision was widely criticized.

1351. Mahatma Gandhi

Great revolutionary who led India to independence from Great Britain through passive resistance and civil disobedience based upon Henry David Thoreau's doctrines.

1352. Dien Bien Phu

France had exercised colonial control of Indochina until WWII. After Japan's defeat in 1945, the Viet Minh seized Hanoi and declared the North an independent republic. War with France broke out in 1946. In the Spring of 1954, the Viet Minh surrounded and destroyed the primary French fortress in North Vietnam at Dien Bien Phu. Lead to the withdrawal of France from Indochina.

1353. Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh

North Vietnamese leader who had lead the resistance against the Japanese during WW II and at the end of the war had led the uprising against the French Colonial government. He had traveled in Europe, educated in Moscow, and was an ardent Communist. Became President of the North Vietnamese government established after the French withdrawal. Often called the George Washington of North Vietnam.

1354. Bricker Amendment

Proposal that international agreements negotiated by the executive branch would become law if and only if they were approved by Congress and didn't conflict with state laws. Isolationist measure, didn't pass.

1355. John Foster Dulles

As Secretary of State. he viewed the struggle against Communism as a classic conflict between good and evil. Believed in containment and the Eisenhower doctrine.

1356. Massive Retaliation

In the 1950's after Stalin died, Dulles and Eisenhower warned the Soviets that if aggression was undertaken, the U.S. would retaliate with its full nuclear arsenal against the Soviet Union itself. However, the U.S. would not start conflicts.

1357. Brinksmanship

The principle of not backing down in a crisis, even if it meant taking the country to the brink of war. Policy of both the U.S. and U.S.S.R. during the Cold War.

1358. Preemptive Strike

The doctrine of attacking an enemy force before they can attack you.

1359. Nikita Khrushchev, 1955 Geneva Summit

Stalin's successor, wanted peaceful coexistence with the U.S. Eisenhower agreed to a summit conference with Khrushchev, France and Great Britain in Geneva, Switzerland in July, 1955 to discuss how peaceful coexistence could be achieved.

1360. Hungarian Revolt

1956 - Hungary tried to overthrow the Communist government, partly encouraged by the U.S. The rebellion was quickly crushed.

1361. Abdul Nasser, Suez Crisis

Egypt's dictator, Abdul Gamal Nasser, a former army officer who had led the coup that overthrew King Farouk, nationalized the Suez Canal in 1956, and was attacked by British, French and Israeli forces. The U.S. intervened on behalf of Egypt. Damaged Britain and France's standing as world powers.

1362. Peaceful coexistence

Khrushchev's proposal that the U.S. and U.S.S.R. could compromise and learn to live with each other.

1363. Eisenhower doctrine

Eisenhower proposed and obtained a joint resolution from Congress authorizing the use of U.S. military forces to intervene in any country that appeared likely to fall to communism. Used in the Middle East.

1364. Common Market

Popular name for the European Economic Community established in 1951 to encourage greater economic cooperation between the countries of Western Europe and to lower tariffs on trade between its members.

1365. Organization of American States (OAS)

Founded in 1948 by 21 nations at the Ninth Pa-American Conference, now consists of 32 nations of Central and South America and the U.S. Settled disputes between its members and discouraged foreign intervention in American disputes.

1366. Castro's Revolution

1959 - A band of insurgents led by Fidel Castro succeeded in overthrowing the corrupt government of Juan Baptista, and Cuba became Communist.

1367. Bay of Pigs

1961 - 1400 American-trained Cuban expatriates left from Nicaragua to try to topple Castro's regime, landing at the Bay of Pigs in southern Cuba. They had expected a popular uprising to sweep them to victory, but the local populace refused to support them. When promised U.S. air cover also failed to materialize, the invaders were easily killed or captured by the Cuban forces. Many of the survivors were ransomed back to the U.S. for $64 million. President Kennedy had directed the operation.

1368. Alliance for Progress

1961 - Formed by John F. Kennedy to build up Third World nations to the point where they could manage their own affairs.

1369. Cuban Missile Crisis

October 14-28, 1962 - After discovering that the Russians were building nuclear missile launch sites in Cuba, the U.S. announced a quarantine of Cuba, which was really a blockade, but couldn't be called that since blockades are a violation of international law. After 6 days of confrontation that led to the brink of nuclear war, Khrushchev backed down and agreed to dismantle the launch sites.

1370. ICBM

Inter-Continental Ballistic Missiles, long-range nuclear missiles capable of being fired at targets on the other side of the globe. The reason behind the Cuban Missile Crisis -- Russia was threatening the U.S. by building launch sites for ICBM's in Cuba.

1371. Revenue Act of 1942

Effort to increase tax revenues to cover the cost of WWII by adding additional graduated steps to the income tax and lowering the threshold at which lower income earners began to pay tax.

1372. G.I. Bill of Rights 1944

Servicemen's Readjustment Act, also called the G.I. Bill of Rights. Granted $13 billion in aid for former servicemen, ranging from educational grants to housing and other services to assist with the readjustment to society after demobilization.

1373. Office of War mobilization and Reconversion

1944 - Directed by James F. Byrnes. Determined whether any prime contract for war production scheduled for termination after WWII should be continued in force.

1374. Extension of OPA vetoed

OPA had controlled wartime prices and a watered-down version was approved by Congress to stay in effect after the war, but Truman vetoed it.

1375. Postwar Inflation

The high volume of U.S. spending during the war, which reached an estimated $341 billion, and pent up consumer demand caused by war-time rationing led to inflation after the war.

1376. Baby Boom

30 million war babies were born between 1942 and 1950.

1377. Employment Act of 1946

Started because of the flood of available workers after WWII. Established the Council of Economic Advisors. declared that the government was committed to maintaining maximum employment.

1378. Taft-Hartley Act

1947 - Senator Robert A. Taft co-authored the labor-Management Relations Act with new Jersey Congressman Fred Allan Hartley, Jr. The act amended the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 and imposed certain restrictions of the money and power of labor unions, including a prohibition against mandatory closed shops.

1379. Senator Robert A. Taft

A key Republican leader in the Senate and a supporter of Joseph McCarthy.

1380. Right-to-Work laws

State laws that provide that unions cannot impose a requirement that workers join the union as a condition of their employment.

1381. Election of 1948: candidates, issues

Democrat - Harry Truman Republican - John Dewey States' Rights Democrat (Dixiecrat) - Strom Thurmond Progressive - Henry Wallace The Democratic party was torn apart by the dispute between the liberal civil rights platform of the majority and the conservative, states' rights views of the southern membership, and the Progressive party pulled away liberal votes as well. Although everyone expected Dewey to win, Truman managed a surprise victory.

1382. Dixiecrats, J. Strom Thurmond

Southern Democrats disgruntled over the strong civil rights proposals of the Democrats' 1948 National Convention. Formed the States' Rights Democratic Party and nominated Thurmond (governor of South Carolina) for president.

1383. Progressive Party, Henry Wallace

Former vice-president under Roosevelt, Wallace ran for president with the Progressive Party, a branch of the Democrats who opposed the Cold War and the policy of containment. He lost but became secretary of commerce under Truman.

1384. Fair Deal

Truman's policy agenda -- he raised the minimum wage from 65 to 75 cents an hour, expanded Social Security benefits to cover 10 million more people, and provided government funding for 100,000 low-income public housing units and for urban renewal.

1385. Americans for Democratic Action (ADA)

An organization for the advancement of liberal causes in the 1940s.

1386. National Security Acts

1947 - Created the cabinet post of Secretary of Defense, the CIA, and the National Security Council. 1949 - Created NATO.

1387. House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)

Committee in the House of Representatives founded on a temporary basis in 1938 to monitor activities of foreign agents. Made a standing committee in 1945. During World War II it investigated pro-fascist groups, but after the war it turned to investigating alleged communists. From 1947-1949, it conducted a series of sensational investigations into supposed communist infiltration of the U.S. government and Hollywood film industry.

1388. Sen. Joseph McCarthy (1908-1957), McCarthyism

Wisconsin Senator who began sensational campaign in February, 1950 by asserting that the U.S. State Department had been infiltrated by Communists. In 1953 became Chair of the Senate Sub- Committee on Investigations and accused the Army of covering up foreign espionage. The Army-McCarthy Hearings made McCarthy look so foolish that further investigations were halted.

1389. Alger Hiss

A former State Department official who was accused of being a Communist spy and was convicted of perjury. The case was prosecuted by Richard Nixon.

1390. McCarran Internal Security Act

1950 - Required Communists to register and prohibited them from working for the government. Truman described it as a long step toward totalitarianism. Was a response to the onset of the Korean war.

1391. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg

Arrested in the Summer of 1950 and executed in 1953, they were convicted of conspiring to commit espionage by passing plans for the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union.

1392. Twenty-Second Amendment

Proposed in 1947 and ratified in 1951. It limited the number of terms that a president may serve to two. Was brought on by FDR's 4-term presidency.

1393. Election of 1952: candidates & issues

Republicans - Eisenhower/Nixon, Democrats - Adlai Stevenson Issues were conservatism and containment of Communism. Republicans won by a landslide.

1394. Ike (Eisenhower) and Modern Republicanism

Conservative about federal spending, liberal about personal freedoms. Believed in a balanced budget and lower taxes, but not in getting rid of existing social and economic legislation.

1395. Fiscal Management

Starting in 1950, the federal government controlled expenditures by regulating the budget, including the deficit.

1396. Reinhold Niebuhr (1892-1971)

A Protestant minister who, in the 1940's, effected and influenced religion, society and politics in the U.S. Known for liberal philosophy, he believed that each individual had the primary responsibility for creating a good society. Founded the Liberal Party in 1944 and received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1964.

1397. Ayn Rand, The Fountainhead

She wrote this novel in 1943 to express her extreme conservative views and her belief that communism was inherently unworkable. Her philosophy was that society functions best when each individual pursues his or her own self-interest, called objectivism.

1398. McCarran-Walter Immigration Act

1952 - Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1952, it kept limited immigration based on ethnicity, but made allowances in the quotas for persons displaced by WWII and allowed increased immigration of European refugees. Tried to keep people from Communist countries from coming to the U.S. People suspected of being Communists could be refused entry or deported.

1399. Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW)

Created by Republican Congress members under Ms. Overta Culp Hobby of Texas. Regulated through committees.

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