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How do psychologists define development?

*Development is patterns of growth and change that occur throughout life.

Developmental psychologists are interested in what?

Developmental psychologists are interested in the nature-nurture issue.

Who proposed one of the most influential theories of cognitive development ?

*Jean Piaget proposed one of the most influential theories of cognitive development .

What are the stages in order of Piaget's theory of cognitive development?

The stages, in order, of Piaget's theory of cognitive development are: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational.

In the sensorimotor stage, what is the most critical development for children?

In the sensorimotor stage, object permanence is the most critical development for children.

What is the definition of reversibility within the context of Piaget's Concrete Operational Stage?

Reversibility within the context of Piaget's Concrete Operational Stage is the idea that some changes can be undone by reversing an earlier action.

Do concrete operational children think abstract and symbolic ideas with ease?

Concrete operational children DO NOT think abstract and symbolic ideas with ease.

Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development is notable because of its emphasis on what type of interactions?

Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development is notable because of its emphasis on social Interactions.

With regard to X and Y chromosomes, what combination do girls have and what combination do boys have?

Male chromosomes: XY. Female chromosomes: XX

What does Mary Ainsworth's "strange situation" assess?

Mary Ainsworth's "strange situation" assess the attachment of mother and baby.

What are characteristics of authoritarian parents?

Holding strict standards and discouraging expressions of disagreement are characteristics of authoritarian parents.

Which theorist's theory of moral development is the most influential in psychology?

Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development is the most influential in psychology

According to Erikson, adolescents are in which stage of psychosocial development?

According to Erikson, adolescents are in the identity-vs.-role-confusion stage of psychosocial development.

Eugene is 27 years old, and he feels very insecure about some of the personal and career choices he has made so far; and consequently he is reluctant at this point to undertake a serious, committed relationship with another person. Based on Erikson's theory, it is likely that Eugene will develop a sense of what?

Based on Erikson's theory, it is likely that Eugene, 27 years old and feels very insecure about some of the personal and career choices he has made so far; and consequently is reluctant at this point to undertake a serious, committed relationship with another person, is developing a sense of ego-integrity-vs.-despair.

What refers to the pattern of enduring characteristics that lend stability and consistency to an individual's behavior and serve to differentiate one individual from another?

Personality refers to the pattern of enduring characteristics that lend stability and consistency to an individual's behavior and serve to differentiate one individuals

Dr. Ashworth believes that one's personality largely reflects internal, unconscious forces. Dr. Ashworth appears to take which approach to personality?

Taking a psychoanalytic approach, Dr. Ashworth believes that one's personality largely reflects internal, unconscious forces.

According to Freud, the key to personality lies in what kind of conflicts?

According to Freud, the key to personality lies in the conflicts of instinctual drives (wishes, desires, and demands) and needs.

In order to protect herself from experiencing anxiety, Nancy is attributing her own unacceptable aggressive impulses to another individual. Nancy is using a what?

In order to protect herself from experiencing anxiety, Using displacement, Nancy is attributing her own unacceptable aggressive impulses to another individual.

Who is often considered the first feminist psychologist?

Karen Horney is often considered the first feminist psychologist (lol, I'd assume Freud would say her unfulfilled [name] desire influenced her view).

Dr. Montgomery, a personality theorist, seeks to identify the key dimensions necessary to explain the consistencies in individuals' behavior. Dr. Montgomery is what kind of theorist with regard to personality?

Dr. Montgomery, a trait theorist with regard to personality, seeks to identify the key dimensions necessary to explain the consistencies in individuals' behavior.

Who is one of the main proponents of the social cognitive approach to personality?

Albert Bandura is one of the main proponents of the social cognitive approach to personality.

Which 2 prominent psychologists discussed in your textbook are associated with the humanistic perspective?

Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow are the two prominent psychologists discussed in our textbook and associated with the humanistic perspective

Humanistic psychologists suggests that people are consciously motivated to reach their maximum potential; that is, people have a fundamental drive toward self- what?

Humanistic psychologists suggests that people are consciously motivated to reach their maximum potential; that is, people have a fundamental drive toward self- actualization.

Dr. Plater believes that one's personality is really just a collection of behaviors that have been reinforced in the past. Dr. Plater endorses the _________ approach to personality.

Endorsing B. F. Skinner's approach to personality, Dr. Plater believes that one's personality is really just a collection of behaviors that have been reinforced in the past.

What are the three levels of consciousness that, according to Freud, play a role in our personality?

According to Freud, id, ego, and superego are the three levels of consciousness that play a role in our personality.

What is the id?

The id is the raw, unorganized, inborn part of personality.

In order to protect herself from unconscious anxiety, Susie convinces herself that she hates action movies, whereas on an unconscious level she actually loves them. This illustrates the defense mechanism known as:

In order to protect herself from unconscious anxiety, Susie convinces herself that she hates action movies, whereas on an unconscious level she actually loves them. This illustrates the defense mechanism known as: reaction formation.

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is a personality assessment widely used in business, industry, and education. Ultimately, it stems from which theory?

Ultimately stemming from Carl Jung's theory, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is a personality assessment widely used in business, industry, and education.

Psychologists refer to a feeling of apprehension and tension as what?

Psychologists refer to a feeling of apprehension and tension as anxiety

Brett has an intense, irrational fear of needles and other sharp objects. Brett might be diagnosed with what type of disorder.

Possibly being diagnosed with a phobic disorder, Brett has an intense, irrational fear of needles and other sharp objects.

Obsession is to compulsion as _______ is to _______.

Obsession is to compulsion as cognition is to behavior.

Khaled's thoughts seem disjointed and illogical. In addition, the syntax of his speech is unusual. Of the DSM-IV-TR's clinical disorders, Khaled is most likely suffering from:

Most likely suffering from schizophrenia (according to the DSM-IV-TR), Khaled's thoughts seem disjointed and illogical. In addition, the syntax of his speech is unusual

Narcissistic personality disorder is characterized by a(n):

Narcissistic personality disorder is characterized by an exaggerated sense of self-importance.

Erin uses cocaine recreationally. The drug is beginning to affect her job performance; deep down she knows this. What are some examples of what Erin might tell herself to resolve the dissonance between the notion that she enjoys using cocaine and the knowledge that it's affecting her work?

Some examples of what Erin might be telling herself to resolve the dissonance between the notion that she enjoys using cocaine and the knowledge that it's affecting her work are going into denial saying she doesn't use it often, blaming something else for her lack of productivity, and believing she is a good worker.

What are central traits?

Central traits are impression formations that focus on the way in which people pay particular attention to certain unusually important traits.

Yuko is a college student in Kyoto, Japan. Peyton is a sophomore at her hometown university, Washington University of St. Louis. Yuko has grown up in a(n) _________ culture; Peyton, in a(n) __________.

Eastern cultures tend to be collectivist oriented, whereas, western cultures tend to be individualist oriented.

Dahlia is trying to make partner at one of the city's most prestigious law firms. It is generally understood that associates remain hard at work in the office until at least 7 or 8 each evening. This is an element of the firm's group:

Dahlia is trying to make partner at one of the city's most prestigious law firms. It is generally understood that associates remain hard at work in the office until at least 7 or 8 each evening. This is an element of the firm's group: conformity.

The classic "shock" study of obedience is associated with which theorist?

The classic "shock" study of obedience is associated with Stanley Milgram.

Psychologists have found that prejudice and discrimination may be reduced by what?

Psychologists have found that prejudice and discrimination may be reduced by increasing contact between the target of stereotyping and the stereotype holder.

According to your text, as many as ____% of college students use social networking sites.

According to our text, as many as 90% of college students use social networking sites.

Behavior that helps others but that involves some self-sacrifice is termed:

Prosocial behavior helps others but that involves some self-sacrifice.

How quickly does one form an impression of another individual?

One can form an impression of another individual within a few seconds.

One makes an attribution when one:

Attribution is made when an event is acknowledged.

Shaun is angry at the way a coworker has treated him. Shaun feels justified in his anger because "surely, anybody would feel the same way if the same thing happened to them." This example reveals Shaun's susceptibility to the:

Shaun is angry at the way a coworker has treated him. Shaun feels justified in his anger because "surely, anybody would feel the same way if the same thing happened to them." This example reveals Shaun's susceptibility to the: assumed-similarity bias.

If we do well on a test, we say, "I got an A!" If we do poorly, we say, "She gave me an F." This best illustrates:

If we do well on a test, we say, "I got an A!" If we do poorly, we say, "She gave me an F." This best illustrates: self-serving bias.

Approximately what percentage of the participants in Milgram's experiment were willing to deliver the maximum shock level to the participant?

Approximately 65 percentage of the participants in Milgram's experiment were willing to deliver the maximum shock level to the participant.

What is discrimination?

Discrimination is behavior directed towards individuals on the basis of their membership in a particular group.

In Juanita's community, girls are not expected to enjoy or excel at mathematics. Juanita's algebra grades drop; by the time she is a high school junior, she is enrolled only in consumer mathematics courses. Which concept does Juanita's example best illustrate?

Displaying a stereotype concept, in Juanita's community, girls are not expected to enjoy or excel at mathematics. Juanita's algebra grades drop; by the time she is a high school junior, she is enrolled only in consumer mathematics courses.

Who conducted the influential "prison" study of the power of social roles ?

Philip Zimbardo conducted the influential "prison" study of the power of social roles.

According to cognitive dissonance theory, which of the following individuals would be most likely to rate the same concert as enjoyable?

I'm not sure of this answer.

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