T/F there are lots of pharmacokinetic studies in small mammals.
False (dosages based on empiracle data, observations, and experience.
Use and drawback of meds in drinking water?
use: commercially kept large populations
drawback: undesirable taste or sick animals adipsic
What is the preferred perenteral route of drugs?
Subcutaneous (easy, minimal stress, use interscapular area)
Which drugs should you be careful with subcutaneously?
Necrotizing drugs eg enrofloxacin that may cause skin slough (dilute with saline to help)
What is the intramuscular site preferred? Why?
Deep in quadriceps or lumbar
-caudal thigh injection may result in nerve paralysis
Enro - subcutaneous injection, what should you consider?
necotizing --> may cause skin slough. dilute with saline
Is compounding easy? what must be considered?
Very few approved meds
Legal & ehtical issues
Compounding must be in compliance with established ____. Done by order of a ___ ___ within a valid ____ and from approved ____ or ____ drugs.
human or animal drugs
When compounding one should be aware of incompatibilities between ____ and ____ ingredients.
active & inactive
Which weird flavors do rabbits like?
carrot, banana creme, vanilla butternut, lettuce, pineapple, strawberry.
Are there lots of pharmacokinetic studies? how are dosages based?
no, lack pharmacokinetic studies
dosages are impircal
Rodents are _____ (omnivores, carnivores, herbivores) and have gram ____ (+/-) and _____ (aerobic/anaerobic) intestinal micorflora.
What does PLACE stand for rodent drugs? T? G?
amoxy/+/- clavamox, ampicillin
(maybe also tms, tet, tylosin, gent)
T/F Many abx have been evaluated for effictiveness.
False (unfortunately need to rely on empiric data)
Factors to consider for appropriate abx:
Patients ___/____ condition
____ ____ involved
Patients ___ & _____ status
organ system involved
nutritional & hydrastion status
What bacterial and ab properties should be considered when selecting an appropriate abx?
culture & sensitivity
bacteriostatic vs cidal
MIC of pathogen
Further considerations in choosing an abx
Administraiton ___ and____
Potential ___ ____
Dose & rate administration
Potential advese effects
Which 5 drugs did we get dosages for that we don't have to know?
Are rabbit abscesses treatable with antibiotics alone?
No, require excision and antimicrobial therapy.
Which antibiotics are inappropriate in rodents (gram what)? what do they cause?
enteritis and abx associated clostridial enterotoxemia
Which route is worst for inappropriate abx? which species most susceptible?
chinchillas, gpigs, hamsters
What should you not give g pigs
high dose chloramphenicol or aminoglycoside
po gram pos abx
Which abx can cause clostridial enterotoxemia? SPEL Ct
pens (incl ampicillin, amoxycillin)
What are indications for analgesia in small mammals?
-post surgical/post-trauma/chronic pain
-reduce stress & promote healing
-results in smoother recoveries
-pre-emptive analgesia may reduce need for analgesics post-op
What are signs of pain?
-subtle changes in activity level
-shift body position
-lack of grooming
Which animals are at the bottom of the food chain? how does this affect their pain?
rabbits & rodents
-pain signs are subtle
Which opioids are used in small mammals?
buprenorphine & butorphanol
(meperidine, morphine oxymorphone)
T/F the effects on bp are consistent.
False (hypotension in ferrets & rats, hypertension in rabbits and mice)
Which opiods are most commonly used in small mammals? why?
butorphanol and buprenorphine
-synthetic opiate partial antagnoists
-minimal resp effects, no cns depression
Why are butorphanol and buprenorphine frequently used in small animal medicine?
minimal resp effects and no significant CNS depression
In comparison to buprenorphine, butorphanol has a ____ onset and ____ duration. (fast/slow, long/short)
(butorphanol = fast quick high)
What side effect does butorphanol have in ferrets? What can help?
profound sedation (use lower doses)
Buprenorphine is a partial ___ agonist and a ___antagonist, does it have the same action or different as opiate agnostis?
What side effects do NSAIDs have?
-vomiting, anorexia, depression, diarrhea
-less common: gi ulcers, renal failure, hepatic failure, death
What should you do to prevent NSAIDs s/e?
-Avoid use of other nsaids or steroids
What are 2 things you can do to prevent NSAID s/e
do not dose multiple nsaids or nsaids w/steroids
What 4 nsaids are used in small mammals?
flunixin meglumine (no more than 3 days) (banamine)
T/F Rabbits are ok with corticosteroids.
False (sensitivity to them - immune suppresion and liver toxicity)
T/F it is ok to give rabbits corticosteroids once.
False (even 1-time doses, topicla or opthalmic can cause GI ulceration and immunosuppresion.)
Can you ever give corticosteroids to a rabbit?
yes, with extremem caution and concurrent gastric protectant.