Food Resources: A Challenge for Agriculture

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Organic Food Production Act

1990 - food that is grown without commercial inorganic fetilizers and pesticides.

Carbohydrates

sugars and starches found in food

Cell Respiration

the process in cells in which oxygen is used to release stored energy by breaking down sugar molecules

Proteins

large, complex molecules composed of repeating subunits called amino acids.

Amino Acids

Small molecules that are the components of proteins

Essential Amino Acids

Amino acids that an animal cannot synthesize itself and must be obtained from food. Eight of these are essential in the human adult.

Lipids

a group of biological molecules that includes fats and oils

Minerals

inorganic elements such as iron, iodine, and calcium. These are essential for the normal functioning human body

Vitamins

compounds that help regulate many vital body processes, including the digestion, absorption, and metabolism of other nutrients. Required in small amounts.

Undernourished

Consuming fewer calories than needed.

Malnourished

Consuming enough calories, but still do not receiving the essential nutrients.

Marasmus

Progressive emaciation caused by a diet low in calories and protein. Typically happens in the first year of life.

Kwashiorkor

severe malnutrition in children resulting from a diet excessively high in carbohydrates and low in protein

Overnourished

A diet high in saturated fats and sugar. Can cause obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes, etc.

Famine

severe food shortage

World Grain Carryover Stocks

amounts of rice, wheat, corn, and other grains, remaining from previous harvests, as estimated at the start of a new harvest.

Food Security

A goal in which all people have access at all times to adequate amounts and kinds of food needed for healthy and active lives.

High-input agriculture/industrialized agriculture

agriculture that relies on high use of energy (fossil fuels) to run machinery, irrigate crops, and produce chemicals such as fertilizers and pesticides.

Yields

the amount of a food crop produced per unit of land

Subsistence Agriculture

Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family.

Shifting Agriculture

clearing of patches of tropical forest to plant crops

Nomadic Herding

is a way of life where families move along with their herds according to the seasons and rely on their animals for food, shelter and clothing. They can tend to cattle, camels, goats, horses, reindeer, or sheep.

Polyculture

Complex form of intercropping in which a large number of different plants maturing at different times are planted together.

Domesticated

tamed for human purposes

Germplasm

Any plant or animal material that may be used in breeding.

Green Revolution

The production of more food per acre of cropland by using modern cultivation methods and the new, high-yielding varieties of certain staple crops.

Food Additives

chemicals added to enhance the taste, color, or texture of the food.

Coloring Agents

chemicals to make the food look more appealing.

Preservatives

chemicals added to retard the growth of bacteria and fungi to cause the food spoilage

Antioxidants

food additives to prevent oxidation.

Nitrates

types of componds called salts that contain the NO3 group, made up of three oxygen atoms bonded to one nitrogen atom.

Nitrites

types of compounds called salts that contain the NO2 group, made up of two oxygen artoms bonded to one nitrogen atom.

N-nitroso compounds

related nitrogen-containing compounds.

Degradation

process that decreases the future ability to support crops or livestock animals

Sustainable/alternative/low-input agriculture

agriculture that relies on beneficial biological processes and environmentally friendly chemicals.

Organic Agriculture

agriculture that uses no pesticide chemicals

Integrated Pest Management

agriculture that limits the use of pesticides and incorporates practices such as crop rotation, continual monitoring for potential pests, etc.

Genetic Engineering

the transfer of a gene from the DNA of one organism into another organism, in order to produce an organism with desired traits

Bycatch

unwanted marine creatures that are caught in the nets while fishing for another species

Ocean enclosure

puts organisms within 200miles of land under the jurisdiction of the country bordering the ocean.

Magnuson Fishery Conservation Act

1977 - established eight regional fishery management councils, each of which developed a management plan for its region

Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act

an act that required the National Marine Fisheries Service to protect "essential fish habitat" for more than 600 fish species.

Aquaculture

rearing aquatic animals or cultivating aquatic plants for food

Mariculture

cultivation of marine organisms

Open Management

all fishing boats of that country are given unrestricted access to fishes in national waters

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