King Phillip II sent this to England to invade its territory; the mission failed; turning point - Spanish power decreases while England's power increases
first permanent colony for the British, original settlers suffered from disease, economy stabled after tobacco was cultivated; this colony was burnt to the ground twice
"a city upon a hill"
Said by John Winthrop in his speech "A Model of Christian Charity;" is saying that the New England city is going to be on a pedestal. People are going to always be watching them
contracting people to work in exchange for transportation, food, clothing, lodging, and other necessities during the time of indenture
He founded Rhode Island for separation of Church and State. He believed that the Puritans were too powerful and was ordered to leave the Massachusetts Bay Colony for his religious beliefs.
John Peter Zenger
Journalist who questioned the policies of the governor of New York in the 1700's. He was jailed; he sued, and this court case was the basis for our freedom of speech and press. He was found not guilty.
Religious revival in the American colonies of the eighteenth century during which a number of new Protestant churches were established.
a 1793 statement by President Washington that the United States would not support or aid either France or Britain in their European conflict
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
Written by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison anonymously opposing the Alien and Sedition Acts (unconstitutional); believed that the states had the right to tell the Congress if laws passed were unjust and argued for states' rights
Battle of New Orleans
Andrew Jackson led a victorious battle that occurred when British troops attacked U.S. soldiers in New Orleans on January 8, 1815; the War of 1812 had officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent in December, 1814, but word had not yet reached the U.S.
territory in western United States purchased from France (Napoleon Bonaparte) in 1803 for $15 million
This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the United States was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million
California Gold Rush
Gold was actually discovered in 1848 but word didn't get to the East until 1949 and that's when some pioneers (49ers) went to California to seek gold
automatic reaper that enabled wheat to be harvested with less people. Enormously popular and increased grain production
an agreement in 1820 between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States concerning the extension of slavery into new territories; prohibited slavery in the former Louisiana Territory north of the parallel 36-30 boundaries
Eli Whitney saw the potential benefit of developing these objects for the firearms of the United States military. In July 1801 he built ten guns, all containing the same exact parts and mechanisms, then disassembled them before the United States Congress.
invented by Eli Whitney; a machine that easily and quickly separates the cotton fibers from the seeds; created more jobs because more people were needed to operate the machinery
Era of Good Feelings
a newspaper term used to describe the two terms of President James Monroe. during this period, ther was only one major political party, the democratic-republicans; it was therefore assumed that political discord had evaporated.
"Cotton is King"
A popular saying during this time because cotton was a cash crop, therefore it served as a major source of income
Nat Turner's Rebellion
A slave rebellion, led by Nat Turner that killed about 55-65 white people; It was the biggest number of fatalities caused by a slave rebellion in the North; Turner survived by hiding for over 2 months
American Colonization Society
An organization formed by Wealthy Northerners who purchased slaves and sent them back to Liberia, where they had made nice colonies for them; Many of the slaves didn't want to go back to Africa because they weren't from there and they didn't know the language
William Lloyd Garrison
1805-1879. Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
Election of 1860
Election between Abraham Lincoln (Republican Party) and Stephen Douglass (Northern Democratic Party); The country had been dealing with the idea of expansion of slavery and the rights of slave owners. As a result, many political parties began to split and tensions started to grow; Abraham Lincoln won the election
Lincoln was sending supplies to Fort Sumter which was seen as a threat to the Confederacy. The south fired canons at the fort for hours. After 34 hours of non-lethal firing the fort surrendered.
Create an oceanic blockade for the South. Free the slaves. Get control of the MS river. Destroy the major cities of Georgia and the Carolinas. Capture Richmond, Virginia.
Issued by President Lincoln that said the slaves in the seceded states were free. He did not include the border states so that they would not secede.Many slaves heard about this then left their plantations
Sherman's March to the Sea
The march began with capturing and burning the city of Atlanta. The troops left Atlanta and traveled to Savannah, GA and destroyed everything in their path.
"Malice towards none, charity for all"
On March 4th, 1865, Lincoln stated this in his Second Inaugural Address. He wanted to help everyone and preserve the Union, with no hard feelings towards anyone.
Set up by General Oliver O. Howard in 1865 to train blacks. It taught over 200,000 blacks to read. It ended in 1872 because of all the criticism from the whites.
Battle of Antietam
One of the bloodiest battles of the Civil War. The Union soldiers stopped the Confederates in this battle as they traveled North. This was another Union win.
Ten Percent Plan
Plan stated that 10% of each state's voters had to agree to never fight a war on American again so that the confederate states could be readmitted to the Union.
President 1865. From poor beginnings. Basically followed Lincoln's same plan. His plan for reconstruction: 1. Some confederates disfranchised. 2.Confederate debt removed. 3. 13th Amendment must be ratified by every state.
These codes forbade blacks from serving on a jury, owning or leasing land, and being 'idle'(not having a job). While blacks were legally no longer technically slaves they were still treated like slaves. The North felt as if everything they fought for was being undone.
Congressional (Radical) Reconstruction
A Republican coalition came to power in the southern states and set out to radically transform the society, with support from the Army and the Freedman's Bureau. Conservative white Democrats, alleging widespread corruption, counterattacked and regained power in each state by 1877, often with violence.Freedmen became second class citizens, while most Southern whites became embittered toward the North and formed a Democratic "Solid South."
This made all blacks citizens and if the state refused then their votes in the electoral college was lowered. Former confederates could not hold federal or state office positions. The confederate debt was erased. States had to ratify this to be accepted back into the union.
Military Reconstruction Act
It divided the South into five military districts that were commanded by Union generals. It was passed in 1867. It ripped the power away from the president to be commander in chief and set up a system of Martial Law
a nickname for Northerners who moved to the south during the reconstruction period to seek personal power and profit
Ku Klux Klan
"Invisible Empire of the South" in Tennessee in 1866—an organization that scared Blacks into not voting or not seeking jobs. If fear did not work they used violence.
Compromise of 1877
This removed federal troops from Confederate states and put Republican Hayes as the president. It ended the radical reconstruction. This left the blacks in the south without direct northern protection.
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
Ruled that "separate but equal" facilities were constitutional under "equal protection" clause of the 14th Amendment, even though in all reality the black facilities were not nearly as good or as developed as the whites facilities.
This gave all men the right to vote. Gave blacks the right to vote. The right to vote could not be affected by color, race, or previous conditions of servitude.
Starting in 1890 these tests were given to all those who wanted to vote. Most whites were exempt from taking these tests. This point of the these tests were to keep blacks from being able to vote. The south was forced to abandon these tests in the 1960s by the federal government.
an agreement passed in 1820 between the pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States Congress, involving primarily the regulation of slavery in the western territories. It prohibited slavery in the former Louisiana Territory north of the parallel 36°30' north except within the boundaries of the proposed state of Missouri. Prior to the agreement, the House of Representatives had refused to accept this compromise and a conference committee was appointed.