b. A public work relief program that operated from 1933 to 1942 for unmarried men from relief families ages 18-25.
i. Provided unskilled manual labor jobs related to conservation and development of natural resources in rural lands owned by federal, state and local governments
c. Part of the New Deal
i. Pres. FDR
ii. Most popular of all the programs
d. Benefits included improved physical condition, heightened morale, and increased employability
i. Monthly pay of 30 dollars a month, 25 of which went to their parents
ii. Led to greater public awareness and appreciation of the outdoors and the nation's natural resources.
e. With the war, industries booming and the draft in operation, need declined and congress voted to close the program.0
b. Largest and most ambitious New Deal agency
c. Hired millions of unskilled workers to carry out public works projects including the construction of public buildings and roads and operated large arts, drama, media, and literacy projects
d. The program fed children and redistributed food, clothing and housing.
i. Almost every community in the U.S had a park, bridge, or school constructed by the agency
e. Ended because of the economic boom of WWII
Montgomery bus boycott
a. Political and social protest campaign that started in 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama
b. Aimed to oppose the citys policy of racial segregation on its public transit system.
i. Included MLK jr. Ralph Abernathy and many other important civil rights figures
c. Caused crippling financial deficit for the Montgomery public transit system because the citys black population who were doing the boycotting were the large majority of the systems paying customers
d. Started with Rosa Parks on December 1, 1955 and finished on December 20th, 1956 when the Supreme Court delared Alabama laws of segregated buses as unconstitutional
b. The date when the World War II allies formally accepted the unconditional surrender of the armed forces of Nazi Germany and the end of Adolf Hitler's Third Reich.
Battle of Okinawa
• Codenamed Operation Iceberg
• Largest amphibious assault in the Pacific War of World War II
• Lasted 82 days from April until mid-June 1945
• The allies were approaching Japan and planned to use Okinawa, a large island only 340 mi away from mainland japan, as a base for air operations.
• Japan lost over 100,000 troops either during battle, getting captured or committing suicide.
i. Tens of thousands of local civilians were killed, wounded, or committed suicide.
• The allies suffered more than 65,000 casualties of all kinds.
• The atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki caused Japan to surrender just after the end of the fighting at Okinawa
• Code name for the battle of Normandy, the operation that launched the invasion of German- occupied western Europe during WWII by allied forces.
• Began on June 6th, 1944 with D-Day.
i. The land forces for this attack came from Canada, the US, and the UK.
• American Writer of 27 books
• Known widely for many stories, including of mice and men
Grapes of Rath
Tennessee Valley Authority
• Signed by FDR on May 18, 1933
• Designed to bring electrical power and jobs to one of the poorest regions in the nation.
• Created by congress as a multipurpose public corporation
• Opened the rivers to boats and barges, fostered soul conservation and forestry, experimented with fertilizers, drew new industries to the region, encouraged the formation of labor unions, improved schools and libraries, and sent cheap electric power pulsating through the valley for the first time.
• The creation of the dams and lakes meant that people would lose their homes, farms and communities.
• The need for electricity was big during WWII
• The elite universities and financial institutions of major cities in the northeastern US. These institutions by virtue of their long standing economic and social dominance, are often believed to exert an influence out of proportion to their size
Battle of Midway
• Regarded as the most important naval battle of the Pacific Campaign of WWI
• The US navy decisively defeated an Imperial Japanese Navy attack against midway atoll inflicting irreparable damage on Japanese fleet.
• The Japanese operation, like the earlier attack on Pearl Harbor, sought to eliminate the US as a strategic power in the Pacific thereby giving Japan a free hand in establishing greater East Asia.
• The plan was to lure the US aircraft carriers into a trap.
• The plan was handicapped by faulty Japanese assumptions of the American reaction and poor initial dispositions
• US code breakers were able to determine the date and location of the attack, enabling the forewarned U.S. Navy to set up an ambush of its own.
i. 4 japanese aircraft carriers and a heavy cruiser were sunk for a cost of one American aircraft and carrier and a destroyer.
ii. Caused large advantage for the US in the navy
War Relocation Camps
• FDR signed Executive Order No. 9102 after the attack on Pearl Harbor
i. Applied unequally throughout the US
• Japanese Americans who lived on the West Coast of the US were all interned
• 10 camps were built in Arizona that would house more than 110,000 Japanese Americans who lived chiefly inside the boundaries of Military District 1
• Afraid of Japanese spies even though none were ever found
• Assassinated in 1965 by 3 members of the nation of islam which he used to be a part of
• Muslim minister and human rights activists
• Front runner for democratic party
• During the California presidential primary on June 4th 1968, after kennedy defeated McCarthy, he was shot by Sirhan Sirhan outside of the Ambassador Hotel in LA. He died 26 hours later at the hospital
Martin Luther King
• Most famous speech is Letters from a Birmingham jail
i. Best quote- Injustice, anywhere, is a threat to justice everywhere
• 1968, Dr King is assassinated in Memphis while protesting the equal pay of black sanitation workers
• Called the first lady of civil rights or the mother of the freedom movement
• Refused to obey bus driver james blakes order that she give up her seat to make room for a white passenger in 1955.
• Sparked the Montgomery Bus Boycott
• Election of 1960
i. Youngest elected at age of 43
ii. 2nd youngest to Theodore Roosevelt
iii. 1st to be born in the 20th century
iv. Only Catholic president
v. First televised election
• Looked good compared to Nixon
• Assassinated on November 22, 1963 in Dallas
i. Lee Harvey Oswald
Bay of Pigs
• April 1961
• An unsuccessful action by a CIA trained force of Cuban Exiles to invade southern Cuba with support and encouragement from the US government in an attempt to over throw the Cuban government of Fidel Castro.
• Launched in April 1961, less than three months after JFK became president
Kent State Death
• Guardsmen fired 67 rounds over a period of 13 seconds, killing for students and wounding nine others, one whom suffered permanent paralysis
• Guards were there to break up large Vietnam war protests
• The American People found out that they were never being told the truth
• US had deliberately expanded its war with bombing of Cambodia and Laos.
• None of the attacks were reported by the media in the US
Civil Rights Act of 1964
• Eliminates discrimination in federal funds
• No discrimination in hotels, public bathrooms, Schools, etc.
• Freed the slaves
• Defined citizenship
• Gave the right to vote to non white men
• Called for the direct election of united states senators
• No sale, manufacturing, or distribution of alcohol
• 1920, women can vote
• Lowered voting ages to 18 years old
Plessy v. Ferguson
• Homer Plessy boarded a car of the East Louisiana Railroad in New Orleans that was designated for use by white patrons only as mandated by state law. When he refused to vacate the car, plessy was arrested
• Started in Louisiana
• Separate but equal
Brown v. Board of Ed
• A landmark decision of the US supreme Court that declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students unconstitutional.
• Over turned Plessy v. Ferguson decision
• Suit filed by 13 topeka parents called for the school district to reverse its policy of racial segregation
• Oliver Brown was mad that his black daughter had to walke 6 blocks to take a bus to a all black school a mile away while there was a white school only 7 blocks away from his home.
• The District Court ruled in favor of the Board of Educationg
• On appeal to the Supreme Court, the plaintiffs contended that segregated schools were not and could not be made equal and that they were therefore deprived of equal protection of the laws.
Lochner v. New York
• The State said that he could only work 10 hours a day according the Bakeshop Act
• Limited 60 hours a week of work
• By 5-4 vote, the Supreme Court rejected the argument that the law was necessary to protect the health of bakers, deciding it was a labor law attempting to regulate the terms of employment and calling it an unreasonable, unnecessary and arbitrary interference with the right and liberty of the individual to contract
• Claimed that the bakeshop act counteracted the 14th amendment
• Robert LaFollette
• Efficiencies in government
• Eliminate Waste
• Efficient government required control of institutions by the voters rather than special interests and that the involvement of specialists in law, economics and social and natural sciences would produce the most effective government.
• 1906, authorized the ICC to set maximum rates for rail roads
• Led to the discontinuation of free passes to loyal shippers.
• ICC authority was extended to cover bridges, terminals, ferries, railroad sleeping cars, express companies and oil pipelines
Military Reconstruction Act
• Sought to rebuild the governments of the southern states using the governments of the northern stats as examples.
• Divided the south into five military districts.
• A way congress could punish the former confederacy
• Ensure rights for the free blacks in the south.
• Way to control wealth and labor in the south
• a way that the Radical Republicans could ensure the free blacks certain rights, and also punish the southern states for their behavior before and during the Civil War.
• Members of an irish American secret society whose members consisted mainly of coal miners.
• Accused of kidnapping and other crimes, largely because of the allegations of one powerful industrialist.
• The Money Man
• Concept of interest on loans
• System only works if everyone pays the bank back
American Protective Association
• Founded in Clinton Iowa
• Its chief doctrine was that "subjection to and support of any ecclesiastical power not created and controlled by American citizens, and which claims equal, if not greater, sovereignty than the Government of the United States of America, is irreconcilable with American citizenship."
• The goals included restricting Catholic immigration, making ability to speak English a prerequisite to American citizenship, removing Catholic teachers from public schools and banning Catholics from public offices
Morrill Acts of 1862 & 1890
• Vocational Training
• The first act gave each state 30,000 acres of federal land to establish an official state college.
i. The states either sold the land or other wise used the land to make money.
• The 1890 act expanded this program to the former confederate states.
• Illegal to teach evolution in the state of Tennessee because it went against the theory of god creating the world
• Scopes was found guilty but the verdict was overturned on a technicality and he went free.
Sacco and Vanzetti
• Convicted of murdering two men during a 1920 armed robbery.
• After a controversial trial and a series of appeals, the two Italian immigrants were executed on august 23, 1927.
Kennedy vs. Nixon
• First televised election
• Kennedy seemed much more prepared
• GNP (gross national product) is the total market value of goods and services produced by the residents of a country, even if they're living abroad. So if a U.S. resident earns money from an investment overseas, that value would be included in GNP (but not GDP).
Urban Political Bosses
• Small groups of political insiders who managed the nomination and election of candidates conducted primaries and influenced policy
• Bosses organized neighborhoods, mediated disputes, pitched candidates, helped the needy, distributed jobs and contacts to loyal followers
Invented railway air break and a pioneer of the electrical industry
• Came out against Jews and Catholics
• In United States history, was a derogatory nickname for southern whites who supported Reconstruction following the Civil War.
• Considered back stabbers
• Ex slaves who are getting out of the south moving west
The Zimmerman Note
• A 1917 diplomatic proposal from the Geman Empire to Mexico to make war against the United States. The proposal was caught by the British before it could get to Mexico. The revelation angered the Americans and led in part to a U.S. declaration of war in April
A century of Dishonor
• A book that begins to change American attitude towards peace with Indians
• Showed people what really was going on out west
Battle of Little Bighorn
• Armed engagement between combined forces of Indians and the us cavalry regiment.
• General George Custer was killed in the battle
• Principles of the scientific method
• One of the leaders of the Efficiency Movement
• Ideas were highly influential in the Progressive Era
Shame of Cities
• Published by Lincoln Steffens
• Exposed public corruption in many major cities throughout the US
• Developed Planned Parenthood federation of America
• Founder of modern birth control movement
The Wickersham Commission
• President Hoover
• Former Attorney General George W. Wickersham headed the 11-member group charged with identifying the causes of criminal activity and to make recommendations for appropriate public policy.
• Opposed to repeal of the eighteenth amendment
G.I. Bill of rights
• a omnibus law that provided college or vocational education for returning World War II veterans (commonly referred to as G.I.s) as well as one year of unemployment compensation. It also provided many different types of loans for returning veterans to buy homes and start businesses.