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Dr. VB

Sadducees

wealthy religous sect identified by Josephus, specialists on the Torah

halakah

collective body of Jewish law, including Biblical law

Simeon bar Cocheba

Jewish leader of revolt against Roman Empire in 132 bCE

Essenes

Jewish sect responsible for writing the Dead Sea Scrolls

Pseudepigraphia

numerous works of Jewish literature including Maccabees and Enoch

Dead Sea Scrolls

collections of 972 texts found at Qumran, written by the Essenes

Qumran

archaelogical site on west bank of Dead Sea where Dead Sea Scrolls were found

Nag Hummadi Literature

papyrus codices found in sealed earthenware, early Gnostic texts

Judas Maccabeus

rededicated the temple, event celebrated with Hannakuah

Hellenization

spread of Greek language and culture, started by Alexander the Great

Messiah

Hebrew for "anointed one"

Antiochus IV

Seleucid ruler from 175-164 BCE, Maccabees revolted during his rule

Richard Horsely

Professor at UMASS Boston, views Jesus as a peasant revolutionary

Criterion of multiple attestation

information is reported in more than one independent source

Q

a hypothetical source made up of material common to Matthew and Luke but not Mark

Independent Biblical Sources for the historical Jesus

Mark, Q, "M", "L", John, Paul's letters

Independent extra-Biblical sources for the historical Jesus

Greco Roman texts, Jewish texts, Gnostic texts

William Wrede

wrote the Messianic secret, Jesus' identity is supposed to be unknown in Mark

"beloved disciple"

unnamed "disciple whom Jesus loved" in the Gospel of John

Apollonius of Tyana

philosopher from Asia minor that was compared to Jesus

The Acts of Peter

apocryphal text describing miracles of Peter and a contest between him and Simon Magus

Perstephanon (Prudentis)

Roman Christian poet who wrote the hymn "Of the Father's Love Begotten"

Pastoral Epistles

1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, they discuss church roles and order

Superiority of Christ in Hebrews

the purpose of Hebrews is to demonstrate Christ's superiority

Melchizedek

Priest outside of the Levite order, compared to Jesus in the book of Hebrews

666

Nero Caesar, gematria, "the number of man"

Emperor Domitian

Roman Emperor from 81 to 96 CE that heavily persecuted Jews and Christians

gematria

system of assigning numerical value to a word or phrase

Herod Antipas

tetrach of Galilee and Perea, had John the Baptist executed and was part of Jesus' trail

haggadah

Jewish, sets the order of the passover

Pompey

Roman leader who conquered Jerusalem in 63 BCE

Augustus

first emperor of the Roman Empire, also known as Ovtavius

Pontius Pilate

mid level bureaucrat, prefect who had the authority to access soldiers

Hadrian

Roman Emperor, general during the Bar-Cochba revolt

Mattathias

started the Maccabean revolt

Hanukkah

Jewish holiday commemorating the re-dedication of the 2nd temple

Masada

fortress built by Herod the Great on a cliff

Caesarea Maritima

harbor built by Herod the Great on the Mediterranean sea

Marcus Borg

idea of Jesus is a Jewish Rabbi

Theophilus

"Love of God", to whom Luke and Acts was written

J.D. Crossan

idea of Jesus is a Cynic sage

N.T. Wright

idea of Jesus is the Christ

Criterion of embarrassment

information wouldn't be made up because the information itself is embarrassing

two source (four source) theory

Mark, Matthew, Q, Luke ("M", "L")

Griesbach Hypothesis

Matthew was the fist gospel written

Testimonium Flavianum

Josephus' description of Jesus

Distinctives of Mark

no birth narrative or resurrection appearances, Jesus is the Suffering Messiah

Distinctives of Matthew

birth narrative, resurrection appearance, 5 sections, rooting Jesus in Jewish tradition

Distincitves of Luke

birth narrative (not Matthew's), role of women, geographical emphasis, message of Jesus is for all

Distinctives of John

"incarnation" narrative, Jesus as the Man from Heaven

Ignatius of Antioch

student of John the Apostle, bishop, martyr, wrote letters of theology

Jerusalem Council

council of church leaders that decided Gentiles could be Christians, 49 CE

Rabbi Gamaliel

leading authority in the Sanhedrin, was a Pharisee

Phoebe

Romans 16:1, Corinthian woman, deacon at the church at Cenchreae

Philemon

leader in Colossian church, recipient of Paul's letter

Timothy

Paul's "loyal child", co-sender of six Pauline letters

parousia

"the coming of Christ"

Church offices

bishops, elders, deacons, mention in Titus and 1 and 2 Timothy

Key theme of Galatians

freedom from the law

Key theme of Philippians

Joy through sufferring

Key theme of Philemon

partnership in Christ

Key theme of Colossians

the "cosmic Christ"

Key theme of Ephesians

unity in Christ

"Antichrists"

mentioned only in 1 and 2 John, there are multiple, they already came

zealots

those who were ready to go to war with Rome, Jewish "minutemen"

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