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Pentekontaetia

period (roughly fifty years) between end of Persian wars and start of Peloponnesian wars, period of relative prosperity and stability

Long Walls

(c. 459-57)

Naupactus

City where Athenians had established Messenian Helot colony, fought on Athenian side during Peloponnesian war

Euboean Rebellion

447/6 Athenian land empire begins to collapse as peace between Athens and Sparta expires
-Euboea revolts from Athens, resentful of Athenian cleruchies
-Megara revolts while Athens preoccupied with Euboea
-in time, Pericles subdues Euboea, but Megara reverts back to Peloponnesian League
-Athenian influence in Boeotia comes to an end; replaced by a Boeotian League under leadership of Thebes

Thirty Years' Peace

Athens makes "Thirty Years Peace" with Sparta in 445
i. Key terms of peace:
-Neither State to interfere with allies of the other
-Neutrals free to join either side
-Disagreements to be settled by arbitration
-No allies permitted to switch sides
-Each hegemon (alliance leader) free to use force to resolve conflicts within own alliance

Thurii

434/3 Conservative pro-Spartan coup takes over Thurii, which passes from Athenian influence.

Samian Rebellion (440-39)

440 revolt of Samos, spreads to Byzantium
-Samos an oligarchy, quarreled with democratic government Athens set up in neighbor Miletus
-Athens overthrows Samian government, sets up a democracy
-Samian oligarchs seize control of government, revolt from Athens aided by satrap of Sardis
-Spread to Byzantium threatens Athenian access to Black Sea
-Athenians confiscate Samian navy, set up a democracy again

Epidamnus

435 in Epidamnus, Corcyra's Adriatic colony, stasis breaks out between the oligarchs and democrats
-Corinth and its colony Corcyra become embroiled in a dispute over Epidamnus.
-Corcyra defeats Corinth in naval battle
-Corinth spends the years 434 and 433 preparing a powerful fleet to take vengeance on Corcyra.

Corcyra

434 summer: new Corinthian fleet sent out to protect allies in the Adriatic; Corcyra, enrolled in neither the Athenian nor Spartan alliances, is alarmed over Corinth's preparations.
-Appeals to Athens for alliance

epimachia

June 433 Athens accepts Corcyra's appeal for help against Corinth; Athenians make a defensive alliance (epimachia) with Corcyra and send a squadrons of ten ships (with Lacedaemonius as a general), and then twenty reinforcements to Corcyra.

Sybota

433: naval battle off the Sybota islands (Corcyra regains Epidamnus, Athens breaks peace treaty by taking part in battle)
-Corinth, convinced the Athenians had broken the Thirty Years' Peace of 445, is openly hostile to Athens.

Megarian Decrees

Fall 432: Megarians complain before the Spartan assembly that the Megarian Decree violates Thirty Years' Peace treaty
-Corinthians promote war; Spartan king Archidamus urges caution, but the Spartans, led by the ephor Sthenelaidas, vote that Athens had broken the treaty of 446/5
-Reppeal of Megarian Decrees one of ultimatums offered Athens by Sparta to avoid war

Potidaea

432 Athens issues decrees against Potidea: simultaneously a Corinthian colony and a member of Athenian alliance
-Not illegal, but uncomfortable situation in already tense climate
-Furthermore, Potidea unlike Corcyra, very attached to Corinth
-Athens orders Potideans to dismiss Corinthian magistrates, tear down seaward defenses, give hostages
-Potideans try to negotiate, then send envoys to Peloponnesus

Archidamus

-King of Sparta from approximately 476 BC to 427 BC. Agreed to the Thirty Years Peace with Pericles
-urged the Spartans to exercise caution and to wait longer allowing greater preparations to be made for a war against Athens
-When the Spartans and their allies voted for wat he led the first invasion into Attica as well as invasions during several subsequent summers which included the besieging of Plataea.

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