period (roughly fifty years) between end of Persian wars and start of Peloponnesian wars, period of relative prosperity and stability
City where Athenians had established Messenian Helot colony, fought on Athenian side during Peloponnesian war
447/6 Athenian land empire begins to collapse as peace between Athens and Sparta expires
-Euboea revolts from Athens, resentful of Athenian cleruchies
-Megara revolts while Athens preoccupied with Euboea
-in time, Pericles subdues Euboea, but Megara reverts back to Peloponnesian League
-Athenian influence in Boeotia comes to an end; replaced by a Boeotian League under leadership of Thebes
Thirty Years' Peace
Athens makes "Thirty Years Peace" with Sparta in 445
i. Key terms of peace:
-Neither State to interfere with allies of the other
-Neutrals free to join either side
-Disagreements to be settled by arbitration
-No allies permitted to switch sides
-Each hegemon (alliance leader) free to use force to resolve conflicts within own alliance
Samian Rebellion (440-39)
440 revolt of Samos, spreads to Byzantium
-Samos an oligarchy, quarreled with democratic government Athens set up in neighbor Miletus
-Athens overthrows Samian government, sets up a democracy
-Samian oligarchs seize control of government, revolt from Athens aided by satrap of Sardis
-Spread to Byzantium threatens Athenian access to Black Sea
-Athenians confiscate Samian navy, set up a democracy again
435 in Epidamnus, Corcyra's Adriatic colony, stasis breaks out between the oligarchs and democrats
-Corinth and its colony Corcyra become embroiled in a dispute over Epidamnus.
-Corcyra defeats Corinth in naval battle
-Corinth spends the years 434 and 433 preparing a powerful fleet to take vengeance on Corcyra.
434 summer: new Corinthian fleet sent out to protect allies in the Adriatic; Corcyra, enrolled in neither the Athenian nor Spartan alliances, is alarmed over Corinth's preparations.
-Appeals to Athens for alliance
June 433 Athens accepts Corcyra's appeal for help against Corinth; Athenians make a defensive alliance (epimachia) with Corcyra and send a squadrons of ten ships (with Lacedaemonius as a general), and then twenty reinforcements to Corcyra.
433: naval battle off the Sybota islands (Corcyra regains Epidamnus, Athens breaks peace treaty by taking part in battle)
-Corinth, convinced the Athenians had broken the Thirty Years' Peace of 445, is openly hostile to Athens.
Fall 432: Megarians complain before the Spartan assembly that the Megarian Decree violates Thirty Years' Peace treaty
-Corinthians promote war; Spartan king Archidamus urges caution, but the Spartans, led by the ephor Sthenelaidas, vote that Athens had broken the treaty of 446/5
-Reppeal of Megarian Decrees one of ultimatums offered Athens by Sparta to avoid war
432 Athens issues decrees against Potidea: simultaneously a Corinthian colony and a member of Athenian alliance
-Not illegal, but uncomfortable situation in already tense climate
-Furthermore, Potidea unlike Corcyra, very attached to Corinth
-Athens orders Potideans to dismiss Corinthian magistrates, tear down seaward defenses, give hostages
-Potideans try to negotiate, then send envoys to Peloponnesus
-King of Sparta from approximately 476 BC to 427 BC. Agreed to the Thirty Years Peace with Pericles
-urged the Spartans to exercise caution and to wait longer allowing greater preparations to be made for a war against Athens
-When the Spartans and their allies voted for wat he led the first invasion into Attica as well as invasions during several subsequent summers which included the besieging of Plataea.