1. In the body, water that resides between cells is known as
a. diuretic fluid.
b. interstitial fluid.
c. edematous fluid.
d. intravascular fluid.
2. Which of the following types of drinking water contains the lowest amount of minerals?
a. Soft water
b. Hard water
c. Natural water
d. Distilled water
3. What is another term for hypertension?
a. High blood sodium
b. High blood pressure
c. Excessive mental stress
d. Excessive muscular contraction
4. The DASH diet plan was devised to prevent
5. What is the greatest single source of sodium in the diet?
a. Processed foods
b. Unprocessed foods
c. Natural salt content of foods
d. Salt added during cooking and at the table
6. Which of the following is not among the common food sources of potassium?
c. Fresh fruits
d. Orange juice
7. Almost all (99%) of the calcium in the body is used to
a. provide energy for cells.
b. provide rigidity for the bones and teeth.
c. regulate the transmission of nerve impulses.
d. maintain the blood level of calcium within very narrow limits.
8. Which of the following is a feature of calcium in the body?
a. High blood calcium levels correlate with tetany
b. Abnormal dietary calcium intakes promote calcium rigor
c. Higher calcium intakes correlate with lower body fatness
d. Efficiency of intestinal calcium absorption is similar for children and adults
9. Which of the following are good sources of dietary calcium?
c. Enriched grains
d. Certain green vegetables
10. What is the calcium Adequate Intake for young adults?
a. 500 mg
b. 800 mg
c. 1000 mg
d. 1500 mg
11. Which of the following is a feature of phosphorus in nutrition?
a. Dietary sources include fresh vegetables
b. Dietary deficiencies are virtually unknown
c. Absorption is known to be reduced by soft drink consumption
d. Its participation in bone synthesis requires equivalent intake of dietary calcium
12. Which of the following is a major function of magnesium?
a. Transport of oxygen
b. Prevention of anemia
c. Catalyst in energy metabolism
d. Production of thyroid hormone
13. Sulfur is present in practically all
c. fatty acids.
14. All of the following are known to have a high sulfur content except
15. All of the following are known to have a high correlation with risk for osteoporosis except
a. being thin.
b. being female.
c. having anorexia nervosa.
d. consuming a high-protein diet.
16. Which of the following is a feature of physical activity and bone health?
a. Dancing is not an effective activity for helping maintain bone density
b. Weight training improves bone density in young but not older women
c. Working the muscles places stress on bones which promotes bone density
d. Weight-bearing activities are effective in maintaining bone mass in adults but not in adolescents
17. Which of the following is a characteristic of the trace minerals?
a. A deficiency sign common to many trace minerals is dermatitis
b. The amounts in foods are dependent, in part, on soil composition
c. Deficiencies are more difficult to recognize in children than in adults
d. The amount of all trace minerals in the average person totals approximately 100 grams
18. Which of the following is known to enhance iron absorption?
c. Foods containing vitamin C
d. Foods containing vitamin E
19. All of the following are known to reduce the absorption of iron except
20. Which of the following population groups is least susceptible to iron-deficiency anemia?
a. Older infants
b. Children 2-10 years of age
c. Women of childbearing age
d. Men 20-45 years of age
21. Low levels of blood hemoglobin most likely indicate a deficiency of
22. Iron overload is also known as
23. What is the Tolerable Upper Intake Level for iron?
a. 45 mg
b. 90 mg
c. 120 mg
d. Twice the RDA
24. Which of the following foods provides the greatest amount of iron per serving?
b. Skim milk
c. Pinto beans
d. American cheese
25. In the United States, iron is currently added to which of the following foods?
a. Milk and cheese
b. Breads and cereals
c. Peanut butter and jellies
d. Orange juice and tomato juice
26. Which of the following is a common side effect from taking iron supplements?
d. Black tongue
28. Zinc is known to play an important role in all of the following functions except
a. wound healing.
b. synthesis of retinal.
c. production of sperm.
d. oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids.
30. Which of the following represents the most reliable dietary source of zinc?
a. Nuts and oils
b. Milk and yogurt
c. Fruits and vegetables
d. Meats and whole-grain cereals
31. Under which of the following conditions are certain supplements of zinc reported to be beneficial?
a. In the treatment of colds
b. In the treatment of Menkes syndrome
c. In the treatment of toxicity from certain other metals
d. In the treatment of slow growth syndrome in U.S. children
32. All of the following are recognized symptoms of zinc deficiency except
b. altered taste acuity.
c. impaired vision in dim light.
d. increased susceptibility to infection.
34. What is the primary function of the thyroid hormones?
a. Precursors for hemoglobin synthesis
b. Counteract a deficiency of goitrogens
c. Control the rate of oxygen use by cells
d. Regulate acetylcholine concentrations in the central nervous system
35. Which of the following is the richest source of iodine?
c. Orange juice
d. Cruciferous vegetables
37. Which of the following would most likely result from an excessive intake of iodine?
b. Skin rashes
d. Thyroid gland enlargement
38. Which of the following is an important function of selenium?
a. Helps blood to clot
b. Inhibits the formation of free radicals
c. Stabilizes the alcohol content of beer
d. Acts as a cross-linking agent in collagen
39. All of the following are characteristics of copper in nutrition except
a. deficiency is rare.
b. legumes are a rich source.
c. absorption from foods is poor.
d. absorption is reduced by ingestion of zinc supplements.
40. The rare genetic disorders Menkes disease and Wilson's disease result from abnormal utilization of
41. Which of the following meats would be the best source of copper?
42. Which of the following represents the most likely cause of manganese toxicity?
a. Consumption of supplements
b. Increased absorption due to genetic defect
c. Inhalation of dust contaminated with manganese
d. Consumption of foods grown on manganese-rich soils
43. What is the most reliable source of dietary fluoride?
a. Public water
b. Dark green vegetables
c. Milk and milk products
d. Meats and whole-grain cereals