History Final

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According to the theory of _______________, a nation could increase its wealth and power by obtaining as much gold and silver as possible, and by establishing a favorable _________________, in which it sold more goods than it bought

Mercantilism, Balance of Trade

Beginning in 1651, England's _________________, the country's legislative body, moved to tighten control of colonial trade by passing a series of measures known as the _________________

Parliament, Navigation Acts

Seeking to make colonial government more obedient, King James II disbanded the local assemblies of the northern colonies, united the area from southern Maine to New Jersey under the _________________, and chose _________________ to rule it

Dominion of New England, Sir Edmund Andros

In the years after the _________________ of 1688, England turned its attention away from the colonies, adopting an overall colonial policy that became known as _____________________

Glorious Revolution, Salutary Neglect

After the overthrow of James II, a series of laws was passed by _________________ that disbanded the _________________ and returned the colonies to their previous status

Parliament, Dominion of New England

A cash crop is one that is raised primarily for:

Sale

All of the following were reasons why Southern planters chose to use enslaved Africans on their plantations except:

Enslaved Africans were very inexpensive to purchase

The "triangular trade" could best be described as a network of trade routes connecting _________________

The Colonies, West Indies, England, Europe, and Africa

What cargo was carried on what is known as the middle passage of the triangular trade?

Enslaved People

The Stono Rebellion was led by:

African Slaves

All of the following were causes of the Salem Witchcraft Trials EXCEPT for

The spread of Enlightenment ideals

Enlightenment thinkers stressed all of the following EXCEPT

The unpredictability of nature

Which of the following was "awakened during the Great Awakening?

Religious Belief

Benjamin Franklin was an important figure in the _________________

Enlightenment

Jonathan Edwards was an important figure in the _________________

Great Awakening

This banned all settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains

Proclamation of 1763

Britain intended this to prevent further costly conflicts with Native Americans

Proclamation of 1763

This was intended to crack down on smuggling and to raise money to pay off the war debt

Sugar Act

This ambitious 22-year-old colonel was defeated at Fort Necessity in the opening battle of the French and Indian War

George Washington

This general search warrant allowed British customs officials to search any colonial ship or building they believed to be holding smuggled goods

Writs of Assistance

This financial expert was chosen by King George III to serve as Prime Minister in the hope that he could solve the financial problems caused by the French and Indian War

George Grenville

This reinforced the policy that smuggling trials were to be held at vice-admiralty courts rather than colonial courts

Sugar Act

Although he captured eight British forts in the Ohio River Valley, he was forced to negotiate when his troops were severely weakened by disease

Pontiac

Under his leadership the British army finally began winning battles in the French and Indian War, and the Iroquois agreed to support Britain

William Pitt

A republic is a government in which

Citizens rule through their elected representatives

Republicanism is the idea that

Governments should be based on the consent of the people

A confederation is

An alliance

A tariff is a tax on

Imported goods

The Land Ordinance of 1785 was

A law establishing a plan for surveying western lands

The Northwest Ordinance of 1787

Established procedures for western lands to become territories and, eventually, states

The Judiciary Act of 1789

Appointed the first Chief Justice

Washington's cabinet included the Department of

Commerce

Alexander Hamilton

Opposed the Establishment of a national bank

The Bank of the United States

Passed a protective tariff on goods produced in Europe

The Republican Party of the late 1700s

Supported a strong central government

An Excise Tax

Was an import tax placed on goods produced in Europe

Who improved on an earlier device and created the telegraph?

Samuel F.B. Morse

who invented the steel plow?

john deere

who invented the mechanical reaper?

cyrus mccormick

which invention sliced through heavy soil much more easily than existing tools

steel plow

what is it called when a farmer raises only one or two crops for sale

specialization

what invention carried messages. tapped in code, across copper wire

telegraph

what is the economic system in which private corporations and individuals control the means of production and use them to earn profits

capitalism

what word comes from the french word meaning to undertake

entrepreneur

which invention allowed goods to be transported upriver, against the current

steamboat

what occurred in the early 19th century and changed the way people acquired the goods they needed

market revolution

industrialization in the early 19th century led to all of the following except

greater self-sufficiency

during the 1840, the advantage that canals had over railroads was that shipping by canal was

cheaper

the name of a man killed by an anti-Mornmom mob in 1844 is

joseph smith

fifty-four forty or fight referred to a boundary dispute between the United States and

great britain

under mexican rule, the main appeal texas held for american settlers was

cheap land

of the following, the man most in favor of seizing land from mexico was

james polk

within the united states, conflicts over what delayed the annexation of texas

the balance of free and slave states

which of the following present-day states was not ceded to the united states in the treaty of guadalupe hidalgo

texas

the final borders of the lower 48 states were established in the

gadsden purchase

as more settlers moved west, what happened to the area called the MIDDLE GROUND

it also moved west

which event was most responsible for creating a diverse population in california

the gold rush

which group played a major role in the settling of the american west

mormons

what does the slogan FIFTY FOUR FORTY OR FIGHT refer to

the northern boundary of the oregon territory

in the early years of canal and railroad travel, what advantage did railroads offer

speed

which of the following improved during the first half of the 19th century

the standard of living for the average american

who were the empresarios of texas

land agents

what was the most important impact of the canal building era

it opened the midwest to world markets

the inventor of a new rubber product that didnt freeze or melt was

charles goodyear

the idea that america had a God-given right to expand across the continent was expressed by the phrase _______________

manifest destiny

the treaty of fort laramie, in which the u.s. government gave control of a large part of the plains to native americans in exchange for peaceful relationships with settlers, was repeatedly violated by the ______________

U.S.

the ______________ extended from independence, missouri to portland, oregon

oregon trail

the mormon migration to utah was led by ____________

brigham young

the mormon's main reason for moving west was a desire for ______________

religious freedom

for which action is nat turner well known

leading a violent slave revolt

what did the abolition movement promote

ending the institution of slavery

what belief was one important feature of the second great awakening

a belief in personal responsibility for salvation

what term refers to the 19th century belief that married women's activities shold be limited to housework and family

the cult of domesticity

which of the following did frederick douglass not do

emigrate to africa

which of the following was not a problem faced by mill girls in massachusetts

lack of safe places to stay

in which philosophical movement was ralph waldo emerson a leader

transcendentalism

this person helped launch the second great awakening

charles grandison finney

this became a political, cultural, and social center for its members

african methodist episcopal church

this person represented a philosophical movement that emphasized self-reliance, truth in nature, and personal imagination

ralph waldo emerson

this reformer focused on the mentally ill

dorothea dix

this prevented congress from hearing abolitionist petitions to end slavery

gag rule

this former slave, who changed her name, spoke for abolition and women's rights

sojourner truth

this free black advised african americans to fight for freedom rather than wait for slave owners to end slavery

david walker

this former slave published THE NORTH STAR and worked to end slavery through political means

frederick douglass

this person, along with lucretia mott, organized the first women's rights convention at seneca falls, new york

elizabeth cady scanton

the second great awakening centered on the belief that a person's salvation depended on

his or her own efforts

unlike revivalism, Unitarianism emphasized

reason and conscience

one result of nat turners rebellion was

the tightening of laws controlling african american slaves

as an abolitionist, frederick douglass favored

political action to end slavery

at the seneca falls convention, a resolution that women should receive the right to vote was

only narrowly approved

the temperance movement recognized

the destructive effects of drunkenness on family life

the second great awakening was similar to jacksonian democracy in its emphasis on

the power of the average citizen

the industrial revolution in the united states involved all of the following except

a steadily growing slave trade in the south

eli whitney is best known for his invention of the

cotton gin

henry clay proposed the american system for all of the following reasons EXCEPT

to bring an end to slavery

the main purpose of the tariff of 1816 was to

aid american industry

all of the following are true of the erie canal EXCEPT that it

was primarily intended to transport PASSENGERS

the supreme court decision in muculloch v. maryland

strengthened the federal government's control over the economy

john quincy adams

helped to expand u.s. territory to include florida

the monroe doctrine

warned european powers not to interfere with the affairs of the western hemisphere

nationalism

is a belief in placing national interests above regional concerns

the missouri compromise

maintained the balnace of slave states and free states

andrew jackson and nicholas biddle fought over

the tariff of abominations

in 1840, they ran william henry harrison as their candidate for president and won against martin van buren

whigs

from the south's point of view, this was making the north rich at the south's expense

bank of the u.s.

elected president in 1836, he inherited the problems created by jackson's economic policies

martin van buren

this championed states' rights and questioned the legality of applying some federal laws in the states

nullification theory

in a series of famous debates against senator robert hayne, he defended the tariff and attacked states' rights

daniel webster

this allowed the federal government to use the military against south carolina if state authorities resisted paying proper duties

force bill

this president was referred to as "his accidency" since he came to power through the unexpected death of president harrison

john tyler

he was the vice-president from south carolina whose famous toast included the phrase "the union, next to our liberty, the most dear"

john c calhoun

who benefited from andrew jackson's spoils system

south and west farmers

which native american group walked the trail of tears

cherokee

what act of congress eventually led to the trail of tears

indian removal act

what was the result of the trail of tears

1/4 cherokees died (ANGRY INDIANS)

in whose favor did the supreme court rule in worcester v. georgia

native americans (worcester)

what was andrew jackson's response to the ruling in worcester v. georgia

he ignored it

the first successful steamboat was designed and built by

robert fuller

the policy by which a newly elected president replaces high-ranking members of the executive branch with his own appointees is known as

spoils system

the trail of tears refers to the forced relocation of the cherokee to new lands in __________________

oklahoma

as part of the missouri compromise ___________ was admitted to the union as a free state

maine

in 1832, ________ declared a series of tariffs unconstitutional and threatened to secede from the union

south carolina

jackson's first vice president __________ publicly disagreed with him on the subject of states' rights

john c calhoun

andrew jackson believed that ___________ symbolized eastern wealth and threatened american democracy

bank of the united states

the theory of nullification raised the question of how to divide power between ____________

state and federal governments

the _____________ was aimed, in part, at prventing russia from establishing colonies in california

Monroe Doctrine

the erie canal connected the atlantic ocean to __________

the great lakes

according to the theory of mercantilism, a country has a favorable balance of trade when

the value of exports is greater than the value of imports

the purpose of the navigation acts was to

restrict colonial trade

as a result of england's policy of SALUTARY NEGLECT, the colonies developed

a desire for self-government

in the late 1600s, the number of enslaved africans in the south increased dramatically in part due to a decline in

the availability of indentured servants from europe

in 1765, colonists react with rage and well-organized resistance to the ______________, a package of revenue laws imposing taxes on imports of glass, lead paint, paper, and tea

townshend acts

the MIDDLE PASSAGE refers to the part of the transatlantic trade network that carried

africans from africa to the west indies and north america

the enlightenment was a movement that emphasized the value of

reason

the great awakening caused some colonists to

abandon their puritan and anglican congregations

during the french and indian war, native americans fought on the side of

both the british and the french

with the proclamation of 1763, the british government attempted to

stop settlement west of the appalachans

the sugar act was an effort by the british parliament to

reduce colonial smuggling

the _________ was a slave uprising begun by about twenty slaves near charleston, south carolina

stono rebellion

unlike enslaved persons in the south, those in new england could

bring a lawsuit in court

the main cargo sent to north america via the _____________ was slaves

middle passage

indigo is an example of a ______________, one that is grown primarily for sale rather than for the farmer's own use

cash crop

jonathan edwards was a key figure during the ____________________, a time when preachers sought to bring people back to religion

great awakening

in the french and indian war, british troops were eventually aided by the _______________, who helped them win the war

iroquois

britains parliament passed the _____________ in 1764 to try to stop the colonies from smuggling non-british goods into the country

sugar act

under the policy of _____________, england relaxed its enforcement of trade regulations in the colonies in return for their continued economic loyalty

salutary neglect

the goal of the _________________ was to ban all settlement west of the appalachians

proclamation of 1763

native american leader _____________ led an uprising in the ohio river valley in response to the growing number of settlers entering the area

pontiac

from the time of the declaration of independence until the ratification of the constitution, the u.s. function without

a president

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