19th century. Big conglomerates that were agents of expansion. Government decides who is in charge of them. When they have no competition, government gives them special treatment
The Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere
Early 10th century. Japan's philosophy for imperializing. "It's better if you accept the rule because it will civilize you." An idea to prosper together through Japan.
The March First Movement
(1919) Koreans took to the streets demanding independence from the Japanese government. However, the government suppressed the movement
Kyongsang Textile Company
Early 19th century. Yangban successful business; modern and flourished under Japanese colonial rule. Owner was honorary consul general of Manchukuo
The Peace Preservation Act
(1925) Between Japan and Korea. Any attempt to change the current political system is illegal.
Early 20th century Japanese policy that literally means Japan and Korea are one
Early 20th century. Folk belief revering the emperor which became required of all Koreans
The Manchurian Incident
(1931) Manchuria seen as lifeline because it is huge with a good market, many resources; Japan took over Manchuria.
The Nanjing Massacre
(1937) Japan's invasion of China to bring glory to the emperor. Fired bombs, cannons, many were raped, burned, and killed. 220,000 people buried with an additional 100,000 killed
Early to mid 20th century. Korean women sent to China to provide sex services for Japanese. They were lured by false job opportunities
Early to mid 20th century. Thought to be a god, descendant of the sun goddess and therefore infallible and must be revered
The Tokyo War Trial
Mid 20th century. Those involved in the Nanjing Massacre were put to trial. Had 7 death sentences but only 1 general executed for his crimes in Nanjing. Trial ended abruptly before its time and Hirohito wasn't prosecuted but seen as benevolent. Never fully pursued
Late 20th century, set up a shrine honoring those sacrificed war criminals
The Meiji Period
(1868-1912) Reformers. Iwakura Mission enforced that women should stay at home and take care of their family.
The Taisho Period
(1912-1926) Women emerged as public figures through writing
The Showa Period
(1926-1989) Period of Independent, free love, fashionable woman who was educated and worked outside of the home
The Great Learning For Women
Early 18th century. Onna daigaku. Essay made by Kaibara Ekken who was a scholar in Japan. Ideal woman should establish a subordinate role based on man's fantasy. Treat in-laws with respect, treat husband as though he is a god, stay at home, women are inferior because they are inherently stupid
Early 18th century. 1) From birth, obey father. 2) Married, obey husband. 3) When old, obey son.
The New Great Learning for Women
Early 20th century. shin onna daigaku. If to emulate west ways, Japan developed many women to work outside home. Alternative to onna daigaku. Focused on educated and literate woman, who has her own voice and a creative outlet of expression (Moga)
Late 19th to early 20th century. Good wife, wise mother. Women stay at home, take care of family, husband and children.
(1878-1942) female writer active in the 1920s. Published in bluestocking to promote cultural change and want own voice. Still nervous of judgment but does un-womanly things
Early 20th century Japanese commercial magazine. Rebellious, taught girls to be expressive. Yosano Akiko wrote in this magazine.
The New Woman
Early to mid 20th century. Educated woman who is married, does work and charity. Fashionably has short hair, high heels and a short skirt. Dress as a marker of new identity and markers of modernity as a means to resist accepted gender norms
Washington Treaty System
(1921) US treaty system limiting the arms race and Japanese war-making capacity
The Tripartite Pact
(1940) Japan made a pact allying itself with Germany and Italy
Mid 20th century. Those disfigured by the bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Supreme Commander of Allied Powers (SCAP)
During the US Occupation during mid 20th century. One of the US's main goals whilst occupying Japan to mold Japan
Mid 20th century. In charge of SCAP to mold Japan according to western ways
(1951) Japan and US. US's idea that Japan is malleable
Mid 20th century. Japan cannot wage war and cannot have a standing army
Mid 20th century. Said that rearmament would be unconstitutional and should instead use military money to focus on the economy and flourishing markets and have a self defense force
Self Defense Force
Mid 20th century. Yoshia Shigeru implemented this instead of a standing army in Japan.
The US-Japan Security Treaty
(1952) Japan is a military protectorate of the US; US army bases implemented in Japan
SWNCC (State War Navy Coordinating Committee)
Mid to late 20th century. Helped to define Korea's new borders after Korean liberation.
The 38th Parallel
Mid to late 20th century. Splitting of Korea into North and South by the US officers
USAMGIK (US Military Government in Korea)
Mid 20th century. US military and army government in Korea; occupied South Korea, concerned with communism, pro-American, supported minority Koreans who were better educated, wealthier and cooperated with Japan
The People's Committee
Mid 20th century. Part of the North Korean response; grassroots organization formed after Korea gained independence to talk about how to deal with post colonialism. Soviets backed them up
DPRK (Democratic People's Republic of Korea)
Beginning in mid 20th century. North Korea run by the People's Committees. Country run by Kim Ilsong as brought by the Soviets. and the Soviets implemented communism there. They have the army of people and anti-Japanese. Focused on reforms.
General during the mid to late 20th century. Had 4 steps to build a pro-US, anti-communist South Korea. 1) build an army to defend the 38th parallel and use Koreans who served in the imperial army. 2) Have a Korean national police using Koreans who served in Japanese police force. 3) Support rightist political organization. 4) suppress opposition
(1875-1965) implemented by US as 1st South Korean leader. Part of Korean Provisional Government who lived in the US for 40 years
Mid 20th century. Owner of the Kyongsang textile industry and was a businessman and landlord who was pro-Japanese. Collaborated with USAMGIK
KDP (Korean Democratic Party)
Beginning in mid 20th century. Run by USAMGIK and Rhee Syngman in support of the wealthy, educated minority. Run by a military government and had democracy imposed on them through a strict army and police force.
Late 20th century. US defense parameter set in 1960 creating a capitalist, economic block in E. Asia, but S. Korea was excluded
Early 20th century. One of the hakkas who wrote 3 Principles of the people and began the Whampoa Military Academy. Helped found the GMD (KMT)
The Three Principles of the People
Early 20th century. Nationalism, democracy, people's welfare and livelihood
Whampoa Military Academy
Early 20th century. Goal to gain independence from foreigners; many that trained here became important political figures in China; Soviet-funded
(1887-1975) Led the GMD (KMT) His power base was that he wanted to build a new army of triads and new businesses; Song Meiling is his wife who is a wealthy nationalist
Leader of the CCP. He created a new movement of China using his name and known as the red sun of China. Led the Hundred Flowers Campaign, Anti-Rightist Movement, Great Leap Forward and Cultural Revolution and revered as head and savior of China.
(1927) The GMD's attempt at killing communist activists
The Xian Incident
(1936) Zhang Xuelang kidnapped Chiang Kaishek and forced him to work with Communists against the Japanese
Early 20th century replaced Jiangxi as the new base for the Red Army
Early 20th century. Began with the New Life Movement in 1934. Goals were social engineering using the top-down approach. Largely urban-based and progress made through discipline and order. Run by Chang Kaishek. Eventually run out to Taiwan to establish independent government there.
Early 20th century. Began with land reforms in 1935. Land reform Mao's class analysis. Peasant-based government and revolution from below. Run by Mao Zedong.
The Hundred Flowers Campaign
Late 1950s. Mao's call to give constructive criticism to him and his government but not in large groups nor opposition. Intellectual responses were given and those who did suffered under the Anti-Rightist Campaign that punished those who spoke out against him
The Great Leap Forward
(1958-61) Reorganization of society as ordered by Mao. Cooperatives to communes (loosely defined communities must grow tight-knit). Work, women and family are priorities. Industrialization and labor mobilization.
The Cultural Revolution
(1966-76) Change in leadership to Liu Shaoqi, Deng Xiaoping, Zhou Enlai who began running the government and implementing some capitalist ideas. Mao didn't like this and Mao inspired youth to rebel and make changes to wipe out the old and bring in the new.
(1904-1997). Succesor of Mao Zedong who led the anti-Rightist campaign. Impeccable revolutionary credential and participated in Long March. Accused of being capitalist. Introduced idea of emancipating the mind by promoting capitalist ideals and reforming China
(1915-1989) Party leader in the late 20th century who was killed and inspired student protesters to oppose Mao and reveal flaws of the government which led to the Tianamen incident
The Gang of Four
During the Cultural Revolution in the late 20th century. Led by Mao's wife Jiang Qing and made decisions about what is in and new and what should be eliminated.
Special Economic Zones (SEZ)
Deng Xiaoping in the late 20th century instilled these for foreign investments, especially Shenzhen
Late 20th century special economic zone that was close to Hong Kong and Taiwan and good location to gain foreign help
Household Responsibility System
Late 20th century. People given plots of land to produce grain and pay the quota to the government. They can do what they wish with the remainder. Productivity and standard of living rises
1961 rock star that inspired a movement of cultural fever and consumerism
Late 20th century. Korean identity as defined by Kim Ilsong
Flying Horse Campaign
(1958) Mobilize people and raise productivity in N. Korea
Special Economic Zones in Korea
Have limited trade networks, one of them being in Kaesong
One of korea's special economic zones and had an industrial park which attracted foreign tourism
The National Security Law
(1949) South Korean law that used anti-communism to control the people. If criticize South Korea, then must be punished.
The Kwangju Massacre
(1980) People in S. Korea criticized leader Chon Tuhwan; people started thinking US gave Chon permission to kill Koreans and thus had growing anti-US sentiment
Park Chong Hee
Late 20th century. Former officer for the Japanese imperial army and began a military coup in 1961. KCIA used as an institution to support his power and fabricate spy incidents (such as students in Germany who were executed). Assassinated by leader of KCIA
Late 20th century. South Korean political capitalists who the US gave monopoly rights to.
Mid 20th century, military leader in China and minister of national defense but removed in 1959 for criticizing the economic policy and military of the CCP
Late 20th century. Those who spoke out against Mao in the Hundred Flowers Campaign were subject to punishment and imprisonment. Led by Deng Xiaoping.
Mid to late 20th century. Taught sociology and functional anthropology and social activist. Spoke out in the Hundred Flowers Campaign and punished during the Anti-Rightist movement.
Hai Rui Dismissed from Office
Late 20th century. Play in Beijing about an official who criticized the emperor and thus lost his job.
Late 20th century. Youth inspired and led by Mao during the Cultural Revolution against 4 olds-- ideas, culture, customs, habits. Worshipped Mao like a god.
Late 20th century. Mao's wife and leader of the Gang of 4 who helped led the Cultural Revolution and rid Chian of all that is "feudal" and "old"
Mutual Security Treaty
(1954) Unequal treaty between US and South Korea that legalized extraterritoriality and placed military bases in S. Korea
Late 20th century. Korean women who are forced to provide sexual favors to foreign (US) military and army men.