A Chinese dynasty that ruled from 206 BCE - 220 CE. It was first founded by Liu Bang, had Confucian ideals, gave the state larger control, etc. It did not fall until the Yellow Turban Revolt.
The Emperor who ruled in China from 141-86 BCE. He increased Confucianism in China, saw the population grow, and ruled over a generally peaceful and prosperous time.
The Dynasty that reunified China in 581 following the Han. They lasted until 618 CE, having increased centralization and built the Grand Canal.
Ruled China following the Sui Dynasty, from 618-907 CE. They centralized the government and made art and technological advances.
Vietnam province of China for around 1,000 years.
Japanese religion of nature worship.
An ethno-linguistic term referring to an offset of the Indo-European language family.
Chanda Gupta I
The person who founded the Gupta Empire.
Rules created by independent business men/producers that established work rules, prices, and standards.
The man who adviser to Chandragupta Maurya. He also created the Arthra-sastra
A legal code that told how a king should rule that was created by Kautilya. This book had realpolitik policies.
This man ruled the Mauryan Empire at its largest. He brought about the union of the government and Buddhism. He himself converted to Buddhism after having had years of violent rule.
Indian Empire that fell in 184 BCE. It encompassed nearly all of India (excluding the southern tip). During this time, the hereditary government was replaced with state structures.
Major kingdoms/areas that existed in India in 6th century BCE were called this.
The dominant state of the Mauryan Empire.
Large texts that tell history (of India) in sanskrit. It is the longest epic poem ever wrote (about 10 times the length of the Bible).
The most well-known polytheistic religion. Followers belieive that all gods are part of Brahma. Characterized by caste system, reincarnation, meditation, Dharma, Karma, etc.
A collection of sacred ancient Indian Vedic Sanskirt hymns. Part of the Vedas.
What a soul is called in Hinduism. Followers believe that it will eventually join with Brahma.
This is an ancient religion from India. Followers believe that every soul is divine and has the potential to achieve God.
Another name for Sidddhartha Guatama, the founder of Buddhism.
Four Noble Truths
The 4 main beliefs of Buddhism: the sorrow is birth, age, disease, separation, death, etc. Sorrow comes from thirsts/passions. To end thirst, you need passion. Eight fold path (right views, resolve, speech, conduct, livelihood, effort, recollection, meditation).
The larger of the two main sects of Buddhism.
Hindu scriptures that constitute the core teachings of Vedanta.
A sacred Buddhist monument; a sign of enlightenment.
The teachings of Arius (a Christian priest), who was called a heretic. He didn't believe that Jesus was divine.
First King of Franks to unite all of the tribes. He eventually converted to Roman Catholicism.
10 Lost Tribes of Israel
Ancient tribes of Israel that disappeared from the Biblical account after they were enslaved/exiled by Assyrians.
The population of Jews exiled from Israel by the Babylonians and Romans.
Dead Sea Scrolls
A collection of about 800 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible. It holds great religious and historical significance.
Seen to be the oldest believer of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
Jewish religious works including the Torah, Nevi'in, and Ketuvim
Benedict of Nursia
A Saint in Italy who was the founder of Western Christian monastic communities.
A period of intellectual and cultural revival in the late 8th and 9th century. Saw an increase in arts, architecture, literature, etc.
The founder of Islam; followers believe that the word of God was spoken to him during meditation.
Holy writings of Islam. It was recounted by Muhammad.
A Holy Islamic city. One of the 5 pillars of Islam is to visit this city.
A religious duty of Muslims; "the struggle"
Islamic branch that don't believe that Imams should only be descendants of Ali.
Sect of Islam that believes that only descendants of Ali should be Imams.
Leader of the Islamic community; head of state in Islamic caliphate
2nd of the 4 caliphates following the death of Muhammad.
This person was Muhammad's closest adviser and the first convert to Islam. He accompanied Muhammad on his journey to Medina.
The name for Muhammad's flight from Mecca to Medina.
Code of Hammurabi
A post-Sumeria legal code that was created by Babylonian King Hammurabi in 1750. Had eye-for-an-eye, tooth-for-a-tooth mentality.
Picture representations/simple drawings to represent objects; type of written language.
Type of written language made with wedge-shaped stylus. Used to represent sounds and words.
A character/figure representing the idea of something (opposed to its name). (For example, the written language of China).
Prehistoric period from 3000-1000 BCE. When bronze first became widely used.
Began in 2350 BCE when Sargon - King of Akkad - began conquering Sumerian cities. The empire was the first to unite city-states under a single ruler and ruled for 200 years.
An independent, self-governing city that incorporates surrounding territory (including small villages/towns).
Area that was first settled around 3300 BCE in Mesopotamia (around modern day Iraq).
The "new stone age." Occurred about 10,000 BCE.
Aryan system that ranked people at birth according to family occupation, color, ritual purity, etc. Used until fairly recently in India.
First city found in the Indus Valley. Few artifacts were found and little could be deciphered about the culture that lived there. This name is also given to represent the entire Indus Valley Civilization.
Indus Valley Civilization
Believed to be around 2500 BCE. An ancient Indian civilization whose script is still not deciphered. It developed independently of Mesopotamia.
People who came from north east of the Sinai desert; brought about the end of the Middle Kingdom in Egypt. Name means "princes of foreign lands."
Book of the Dead
Common name for the Egyptian funeral texts. Is placed with the dead to let them pass through the underworld to the Field of Reeds safely.
Egyptian kingdom that ruled around 2700-2200 BCE. Ended with central authority weakened, nomarchs became corrupt, famine became large. Brought about first time of disunity.
Egyptian kingdom that ruled from about 2050-1750 BCE when King Mentuhotpe of Thebes reunited Egypt. Fine arts flourished, the state developed more organization and power, and it was finally ended by the arrival of the Hyksos.
Egyptian kingdom from 1550-1000 BCE. During this time they asserted their power over parts of Nubia and Palestine; Akhenaten one of the most famous rulers of this kingdom.
Ancient Egyptian concept of truth and order; partially codified law.
Believed to be the person to have unified Egypt. Also called Narmer.
A large waterfall (often used in context to Ancient Egypt); a violent rush of water over a precipice that sometimes limited expansion in Ancient Egypt
An pre-Columbian American civilization in Mesoamerica. They had fully developed writing, advanced art, architecture, math, and astronomy. They fell due to overpopulation, invasion, peasant revolt, collapse of the trade routes, and climate change.
Ancient people in China who were large until 2700 BCE. Their main farming consisted of millet, wheat, along with the domestication of pigs, dogs, etc.
Ancient Chinese people who were more advanced than the Yangshao. They domesticated sheep and cattle along with using pottery wheels.
The last capital of the Shang Dynasty. It was the most powerful, stretching over 200 miles. it was eventually burned to the ground and robbed.
What the collective group of 3 kings (Yao, Shun, and Yu) in Ancient China were called. They ruled with perfect wisdom, clarity, and virtue. This is often believed to be the most virtuous period in Chinese history.
Ancient Chinese civilization that are believed to have ruled from about 2205-1766 BCE. Not much is known about this civilization, so some believe that it is merely myth.
Ancient Chinese civilization that rose to power around 1122 BCE and survived for over 600 years. They began recording political thoughts, was the first time that the "Mandate of Heaven" was used, wrote the "Book of Songs," developed cavalry, and expanded greatly.
One of the great ancient cities in the Americas, peaking around 550 CE. Contained the Pyramid of the Sun and had a powerful imperial force. 650 the city was deliberately burned.
An African culture that existed around 500 BCE in Northern Nigeria. They lived along the Niger river and produced terra cotta sculptures.
First indigenous city in Sub-Saharan Africa that began around 250 BCE, reacching its peak around 900 CE. Believed that urbanism existed here without a strong centralized government.
Sargon of Akkad
Man who led an immigrant group of Semitic people into Sumer (also called Akkad). He led them to many victories.
Battle of Qadesh
A fight that occurred between Egyptians and Hittites over control of Syria in 1274 BCE. Each side had around 20,000 men, and it eventually ended with a draw.
A semitic group who are also called Amorites. There most famous ruler is probably Hammurabi.
Descendants of the Prophet Muhammad's uncle, al-Abbas, the Abbasids overthrew the Umayyad Caliphate and ruled an Islamic empire from their capital in Baghdad (founded 762) from 750 to 1258. (p. 234)
The theory popular in France and other early modern European monarchies that royal power should be free of constitutional checks. (p. 452)
African national Congress
an organization dedicated to obtaining equal voting and civil rights for the black inhabitants of South Africa.
South Africans descended from Dutch and French settlers of the seventeenth century. Their Great Trek founded new settler colonies in the nineteenth century. Though a minority among South Africans, they held political power after 1910, imposing a system of racial segregation called apartheid after 1949
early ruler of Egypt who rejected the old gods and replaced them with sun worship (died in 1358 BC)