A Chinese dynasty that ruled from 206 BCE - 220 CE. It was first founded by Liu Bang, had Confucian ideals, gave the state larger control, etc. It did not fall until the Yellow Turban Revolt.
The Emperor who ruled in China from 141-86 BCE. He increased Confucianism in China, saw the population grow, and ruled over a generally peaceful and prosperous time.
The Dynasty that reunified China in 581 following the Han. They lasted until 618 CE, having increased centralization and built the Grand Canal.
Ruled China following the Sui Dynasty, from 618-907 CE. They centralized the government and made art and technological advances.
Rules created by independent business men/producers that established work rules, prices, and standards.
A legal code that told how a king should rule that was created by Kautilya. This book had realpolitik policies.
This man ruled the Mauryan Empire at its largest. He brought about the union of the government and Buddhism. He himself converted to Buddhism after having had years of violent rule.
Indian Empire that fell in 184 BCE. It encompassed nearly all of India (excluding the southern tip). During this time, the hereditary government was replaced with state structures.
Large texts that tell history (of India) in sanskrit. It is the longest epic poem ever wrote (about 10 times the length of the Bible).
The most well-known polytheistic religion. Followers belieive that all gods are part of Brahma. Characterized by caste system, reincarnation, meditation, Dharma, Karma, etc.
What a soul is called in Hinduism. Followers believe that it will eventually join with Brahma.
This is an ancient religion from India. Followers believe that every soul is divine and has the potential to achieve God.
Four Noble Truths
The 4 main beliefs of Buddhism: the sorrow is birth, age, disease, separation, death, etc. Sorrow comes from thirsts/passions. To end thirst, you need passion. Eight fold path (right views, resolve, speech, conduct, livelihood, effort, recollection, meditation).
The teachings of Arius (a Christian priest), who was called a heretic. He didn't believe that Jesus was divine.
First King of Franks to unite all of the tribes. He eventually converted to Roman Catholicism.
10 Lost Tribes of Israel
Ancient tribes of Israel that disappeared from the Biblical account after they were enslaved/exiled by Assyrians.
Dead Sea Scrolls
A collection of about 800 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible. It holds great religious and historical significance.
A period of intellectual and cultural revival in the late 8th and 9th century. Saw an increase in arts, architecture, literature, etc.
The founder of Islam; followers believe that the word of God was spoken to him during meditation.
This person was Muhammad's closest adviser and the first convert to Islam. He accompanied Muhammad on his journey to Medina.
Code of Hammurabi
A post-Sumeria legal code that was created by Babylonian King Hammurabi in 1750. Had eye-for-an-eye, tooth-for-a-tooth mentality.
Type of written language made with wedge-shaped stylus. Used to represent sounds and words.
A character/figure representing the idea of something (opposed to its name). (For example, the written language of China).
Began in 2350 BCE when Sargon - King of Akkad - began conquering Sumerian cities. The empire was the first to unite city-states under a single ruler and ruled for 200 years.
An independent, self-governing city that incorporates surrounding territory (including small villages/towns).
Aryan system that ranked people at birth according to family occupation, color, ritual purity, etc. Used until fairly recently in India.
First city found in the Indus Valley. Few artifacts were found and little could be deciphered about the culture that lived there. This name is also given to represent the entire Indus Valley Civilization.
Indus Valley Civilization
Believed to be around 2500 BCE. An ancient Indian civilization whose script is still not deciphered. It developed independently of Mesopotamia.
People who came from north east of the Sinai desert; brought about the end of the Middle Kingdom in Egypt. Name means "princes of foreign lands."
Book of the Dead
Common name for the Egyptian funeral texts. Is placed with the dead to let them pass through the underworld to the Field of Reeds safely.
Egyptian kingdom that ruled around 2700-2200 BCE. Ended with central authority weakened, nomarchs became corrupt, famine became large. Brought about first time of disunity.
Egyptian kingdom that ruled from about 2050-1750 BCE when King Mentuhotpe of Thebes reunited Egypt. Fine arts flourished, the state developed more organization and power, and it was finally ended by the arrival of the Hyksos.
Egyptian kingdom from 1550-1000 BCE. During this time they asserted their power over parts of Nubia and Palestine; Akhenaten one of the most famous rulers of this kingdom.
A large waterfall (often used in context to Ancient Egypt); a violent rush of water over a precipice that sometimes limited expansion in Ancient Egypt
An pre-Columbian American civilization in Mesoamerica. They had fully developed writing, advanced art, architecture, math, and astronomy. They fell due to overpopulation, invasion, peasant revolt, collapse of the trade routes, and climate change.
Ancient people in China who were large until 2700 BCE. Their main farming consisted of millet, wheat, along with the domestication of pigs, dogs, etc.
Ancient Chinese people who were more advanced than the Yangshao. They domesticated sheep and cattle along with using pottery wheels.
The last capital of the Shang Dynasty. It was the most powerful, stretching over 200 miles. it was eventually burned to the ground and robbed.
What the collective group of 3 kings (Yao, Shun, and Yu) in Ancient China were called. They ruled with perfect wisdom, clarity, and virtue. This is often believed to be the most virtuous period in Chinese history.
Ancient Chinese civilization that are believed to have ruled from about 2205-1766 BCE. Not much is known about this civilization, so some believe that it is merely myth.
Ancient Chinese civilization that rose to power around 1122 BCE and survived for over 600 years. They began recording political thoughts, was the first time that the "Mandate of Heaven" was used, wrote the "Book of Songs," developed cavalry, and expanded greatly.
One of the great ancient cities in the Americas, peaking around 550 CE. Contained the Pyramid of the Sun and had a powerful imperial force. 650 the city was deliberately burned.
An African culture that existed around 500 BCE in Northern Nigeria. They lived along the Niger river and produced terra cotta sculptures.
First indigenous city in Sub-Saharan Africa that began around 250 BCE, reacching its peak around 900 CE. Believed that urbanism existed here without a strong centralized government.
Sargon of Akkad
Man who led an immigrant group of Semitic people into Sumer (also called Akkad). He led them to many victories.
Battle of Qadesh
A fight that occurred between Egyptians and Hittites over control of Syria in 1274 BCE. Each side had around 20,000 men, and it eventually ended with a draw.
A semitic group who are also called Amorites. There most famous ruler is probably Hammurabi.
Descendants of the Prophet Muhammad's uncle, al-Abbas, the Abbasids overthrew the Umayyad Caliphate and ruled an Islamic empire from their capital in Baghdad (founded 762) from 750 to 1258. (p. 234)
The theory popular in France and other early modern European monarchies that royal power should be free of constitutional checks. (p. 452)
African national Congress
an organization dedicated to obtaining equal voting and civil rights for the black inhabitants of South Africa.
South Africans descended from Dutch and French settlers of the seventeenth century. Their Great Trek founded new settler colonies in the nineteenth century. Though a minority among South Africans, they held political power after 1910, imposing a system of racial segregation called apartheid after 1949