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Colonial Unit of AP US History

(King) Ferdinand and (Queen) Isabella

King and Queen of Spain during the age of Exploration in the 15th century; funded Columbus's journey to America's

Martin Luther

German monk who broke for the Catholic Church; initiated the Protestant Reformation

(John) Calvin

Religious leader during Protestant Reformation; focused on predestination and total depravity

(King) Henry VIII

English monarch who broke from the Catholic Church and established the Anglican Church (Church of England); father of Queen Elizabeth I

(Queen) Elizabeth I

Henry VIII's successor who continued the Anglican church; turned back the Spanish Armada; encouraged mercantilism

(King) Philip II

Spanish Monarch who sent the Spanish Armada to attack England, which failed

Spanish Armada

The Spanish Fleet sent to attack England, but failed due to losses in battle or weather damage

(Sir Humphrey) Gilbert

English nobleman whose attempt to settle on Newfoundland collapsed due to inadequate supplies and harsh climate`

(Sir Walter) Raleigh

English nobleman who led an early attempt to establish a colony in the New World; associated with Roanoke, "the Lost Colony"

(King) James I

English monarch who granted the Virginia Company, and other groups, rights to etablish colonies

Virginia Company

first English colony established in the US; included traders and adventurers with no motive to settle; colony failed at first

(Peter) Stuyvesant

Governor of New Netherland, the precursor to New York

New Netherland

the colony which would become New York

(John) Rolfe

brought tobacco to Virginia; married Pocohantas

House of Burgesses

first elected legislative body in the US which could make laws and raise taxes; Virginia;

Headright System

this system encouraged immigration by granting heads of households 50 acres of land per servant he brings

(Lord) Baltimore

English noble man who etablished Maryland as a refuge from religious persecution

Toleration Act (1649)

an act enacted in Maryland to grant religious freedom to all Christians

Navigation Acts (1651, 1660, 1663)

These sets of acts restricted the US to trade with England, which helped fuel resentment of England

(William) Berkeley

corrupt Virginian governor; made large land grants to himself and members in his council and supressed dissent in the House of Burgesses - acts which upset the people; associated with Bacon's Rebellion

(Nathaniel) Bacon

Virginian; led a rebellion against the government's orders not to attack the Native Americans for land

(William) Bradford

English Separatists who arrived in Massachusetts in the Mayflower

Mayflower Compact

the first covenant of government in the US;

(King) Charles I

this English monarch's reign was marked by the English Civil War; the monarchy was temporarily dispowered after his rule

(John) Winthrop

led Puritans to Massachusetts Bay Colony; "City on a Hill" quote

(Roger) Williams

advocated religious tolerance and separation of church and state; he was banished from Massachusetts and established Rhode Island

(Anne) Hutchinson

MA women who opposed Puritan doctrines and held prayer meetings in which she argued that salvations would be awarded for good faith rather than good deeds

(Thomas) Hooker

left MA to avoid coersive policies of magistrates and to find better land; established Connecticut River Valley

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

set up a governing system in Connecticut; similar to MA's government

English Civil War

this war led to the execution of King Charles I, Ending with the execution of Charles I, this war was to put either the king or Parliament in the political power of England. This, however, did not resolve this problem.

(Oliver) Cromwell

English general and statesman who led the parliamentary army in the English Civil War (1599-1658)

(King) Charles II

reinstalled the English monarchy; was disliked for his support of Catholicism; toppled by parliamentary leaders in the Glorious Revolution

Halfway Covenant

proposed that second-generation members be granted the same privilege of baptism (but not communion) as had been granted to the first generation; tried to encourage a spiritual conversion and full-church membership

Metacom's War (King Phillip's War)

Native Americans battle New England colonies; large percentage of native americans died, making it one of the bloodiest wars in US; severely damaged the Native American presence in the new world

Duke of York (James II)

took New Netherlands and named it New York; became English king, who was disliked for his support of Catholicism

Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina

laws of Carolina that never went into effect because it mostly benefitted the wealthy

(Sir Edmund) Andros

governor of the Dominion of New England; disliked for upsetting the established political systems in New England

Glorious Revolution

a bloodless coup in England tha overthrew James the II and enthroned Mary II and William the III; weakened the monarchial power

(King) William III and (Queen) Mary II

King and Queen of England who were enthroned after the Glorious Revolution

Declaration of Rights

1689, a Bill of Rights, signed by the monarchs of England to recognize the rights of English people --> precursor to American Bill of Rights

Leisler's Rebellion

American extention of the Glorious Revolution; overthrew Andros and send him back to England

Stono Rebellion

A 1739 slave rebellion in Charleston, South Carolina; worried whites and caused plantations to suppress blacks more

(Sir Robert) Walpole

British Whig chief minister; his patronage system created the policy of salutary neglect in the US

(James) Oglethorpe

first governor of Georgia; attacked Florida, but without success

Molasses Act (1733)

act which raised tax on molasses; made British products cheaper than those of the West Indies

Currency Act (1751)

act which prohibited US from issuing paper currency; hurt US trade by removing circulating paper money

(Benjamin) Franklin

US politician, diplomat, scientist, inventor, writer; the US extention of the enlightenment

(Johnathan) Edwards

an american theologian and congregational clergyman whose sermons associated with the Great Awakening; known for fire-and-brimstone speeches

(George) Whitefield

leading evangelist of religious reform in England and the colonies; Great Awakening that challenged the established religious order.

Old and New Lights

the traditional and new members of the church during the Great Awakening

Fort Duquesne

a fort built by the French; renamed Fort Pitt after it was captured by the British early the French-Indian war

(Williams) Pitt

General who led British forces in French and Indian War; used much of his own money to finance the war

(General) Edward Braddock

Commanded forces sent by Great Britain to support American colonists; defeated and killed by French and Indian troops

(General) James Wolfe

General who was given task of capturing Quebec by Pitt in 1759

Albany Plan of Union

a plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin to unite the colonies

Pontiac's Rebellion

Conflict between the Native Americans and the British over settlement of Indian lands in the Great lakes area

Proclamation of 1763

British Treaty with Native Americans not to settle over the Appalachians; a restriction which upset American settlers, especially since some had already crossed the line

Treaty of Paris (1763)

treaty which ended the French and Indian war; made Britain the major power in North America;

Paxton Boys

a group of farmers massacre a peaceful Native American tribe because of Pennsylvania's Indian policy

Regulator Movement

movement consisting of landowning vigilantes tried to supress outlaw bands of whites who were stealing cattle and property; wanted greater political rights for S. Carolina

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