APUSH 1st Semester exam Review

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Hope everyone enjoys these, feel free to use them if you like the answer, if not then do not use them. Two or Three questions may not be in here because I do not know the real answers. ENJOY!! If you are the first one on this notecard set, please send it to other people in Mrs. Harpers AP classes

Know about Representative Democracy and Economic gain in Jamestown

The House of Burgesses was the first form of Representative Democracy. Jamestown was able to survive on Tobacco, "Stinking Weed", providing revenue for the colony

Difference in Founding of Virginia and Massachusetts

Virginia was found for economic gains while Massachusetts was found for religion.

Mercantilism

an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests

Who were Puritans

This group of immigrants from England who believed the were choosen to be God's Elect. The lived in Harmony with different types of people.

What was the Great Awakening

A series of unified religious movements.

George Whitefield and Jonathon Edwards

These men were great religious speakers during the Great Awakening

Ben Franklin's intensions at Albany Congress

Ben Franklin went to present his plan for a colonial union: Albany Plan. His "Join or Die" cartoon was to emphasize his plan for American Colonies.

Important result for British and America from Seven Year's War

The British expanded their empire in America and Americans became united for a cause.

Important Battle during Seven Year's War

The Battle of Quebec becaus it cut off Canada's supply lines with France.

Colonist Attiudes Changing

After the Seven year's war was that they did not need any help, and they could rely on themselves for things to come.

Lexington and Concord

the first battle of the American Revolution(April 19, 1775) "Shots heard around the world"

Events preceding to cause rebellion

Boston Tea party, Boston Massacre, Stamp Act, Sugar Act, No Taxation without Representation, etc.

July 4 1776

Declaration of Independence signed

Thomas Paine

This man was an English author who wrote Common Sense which eventually led the colonist to cut all ties with Britain.

Battle of Saratoga and Yorktown

Saratoga: Gained French Aid
Yorktown: Ended Revolutionary War

Motivation of French

Embarrass Britain because of the devestating defeat in the Seven Year's War

Major political and military leaders

George Washington: Commander of the Continental Army
Thomas Jefferson: Kept Aid from France going until end of War

Treaty of Paris siginificance

This treaty gave America independece form Britain and America got lands east of the Mississippi, except for Spanish Florida

WHo Wrote Declaration of Independence

Thomas Jefferson

Why wasn't slavery abolish when nation was founded

The economy was based solely off that institution

Weaknesses of Articles of Confederation

Could not Tax colonist and It did not allow military

Great Compromise and other Compromises

The Great Compromise was to stop the fighting over the representation in Congress. It brought together The Virginia Plan(representation by pop.) and New Jersey Plan(2 people from each country in SEnate). Two other compromise gained were the 3/5 Compromise and Executive Election Compromise

Federalist and AntiFederalist views on Constitution

The Federalist wanted to ratify the Constitution while the Antifederalist wanted to have a strict interpretation of the Constitution.

Father of the Constitution

James Madison

Bill of Rights Purpose

This was to protect people's liberties and rights

What did the Constitution give to President and Congress

President could veto legislative laws and appoint judges. Congress got power to collect tax and declare war

Washington precedent for terms in office

Washington left after 2 terms (8 years) of being President

Washington's Farewell Address

Gave warning to stay away from politcal factions and stay away from making an alliance with nations that would not promote American security

Hamilton's Financial System

Federal government will: 1) take over responsibility for paying off the national debt, 2) take over the state debts, impose customs and excise taxes and establish a Bank of the U.S.

Hamilton and Jefferson leads to parties

These two men's oposing views showed the birth and development of political parties.

Election of 1800

This election was significant because it was a peaceful transfer of power and the 12th amendment was made.

John Marshall's appointment

The Court became Federalist led When John Adams appointed this man to be Chief Justice of Supreme Court; all decisions were based off of Federal views.

Louisiana Purchase, Republic Party, and Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson, being a Republican, bought Louisiana form France. This was seen as Unconstitutional.

XYZ Affair, Jay's Treaty, Citizen Genet Affair, and Embargo Act for neutrality

Americans got bad treatment from French intermediators who were to be known as XYZ. Jay's Treaty did not gain Britain support of US neutrality. Genet was a FRench minister who violated US neutrality. The Embargo Act ended trade with Wurope for not recognizing Neutrality

Powerful European Nations

France and Great Britain

Encroachment in Colonial and Republic eras

In Colonial era, Encroachment was very little, while during the Republic era encroachment was seen offenly because of the want to expand the nation.

Sedition Act and Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions

The federalist placed this Act to stop making fun of government which threatened civil liberties. The Resolutions that followed were to defend the rights of the people.

Reasons why US went to War with Britain in War of 1812

War Hawks persuasion to Get Madison to send declaration of War. US wanted Britain to respect their maritime rights.

Degree of unification

The US was united in a low degree because of sectionalism between slavery

Hartford Convention

Meeting of Federalists near the end of the War of 1812 in which the party listed it's complaints against the ruling Republican Party. These actions were largley viewed as traitorous to the country and lost the Federalist much influence

War of 1812 = status quo ante bellum

At the end of this war, there was no difference from when it started. The treaty that ended the war just stopped fighting.

Eli Whitney and Samuel Slater

These men were budded the Industrial revolution because they invented machines that aided in manufactoring and the lives of people

Battle of New Orleans

A battle during the War of 1812 . Due to the foolish frontal attack, Jackson defeated them, which gave him an enormous popularity boost being seen as a national hero

Sectionalism at beginning of War of 1812

The embargo act seperated many people. People at that time were mad at the act because trade was economic revenue

Growth of Nationalism at end of War of 1812 and beginning of Era of Good Feelings

The US were swept up in nationalism after the War which entered into the Era of Good Feelings. Nationalism during that Era helped pomote better economy, technology, and well being.

Judicial Review in MArbury vs Madison Case

This review recognized the authority of Courts power to declare statutes unconstitutional

Loose and Strict Construction

Loose: Constitution can be interpreted to meet changes of the world
Strict: The Constitution is to be kept with original intent with no interpretation

Jefforsonian and Hamiltonian Political Philosophies

Jeffersonian Republicans: Strict construction with States having power.
Hamiltonian Federalist: Loose Construction with strong central government

Monroe Doctrine

This was a warning that America would stop all colonizaions by any European powers

Transportation Revolution

The Transportation Revolution was experienced because they needed better transportation for the growing population. Examples; National Road, Erie Canal, Rail Roads, Steamboats, etc.

Election of 1824, Henry Clay, John Q Adams, Andrew Jackson

The Election of 1824, between Andrew Jackson John Q Adams and Henry Clay, later became the "corrupt bargain". henry Clay left running and election came to the House where Adams became victorious, even though Andrew Jackson actually got better results, because of Henry Clay's persuasion of his followers to vote for John Q Adams.

Jacksonian Democracy Political changes

2 party system create and new methods of getting support were started

Spoils System

the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power to Government jobs

Andrew Jackson Hatred of Bank

He thought the bank was unconstitutional and the bank was not protecting common man."War on Bank" to eventually kill it. The bank never regained its charter.

Jacksons policies to Natives

His policy was not different from past presidents, except for the fact that he wanted to remove the Natives more quickly and thoroughly then the past.

Southern on Tariffs

Supported lower tariffs because they feared higher tariffs would ruin revenue

Northern on Traiffs

Supported higer tariffs because it promoted revenue

Tariff of Abominations, John C Calhoun, Andrew Jackson, and Nullification Crisis

After the Tariff of Abominations was passed, South Carolina started the nullification crisis. John C Calhoun was a major supporter for nullification to get states the rights to nullify Federal laws. Andrew Jackson eventuall stopped the crisis through the Force Bill

Whigs Holding on

This political group were able to get support form several different groups of people with different views

Polk and Tyler and Manifest Destiny

These two men made land purchases such as Oregon, Texas, Maxican Land, which expanded the US land.

Manifest Destiny

Based off of 3 ideas: 1. God was on Side of American Expansionism 2. Extend American Freedom 3. Population Growth needed an outlet

Mexican American War and Slavery

This war brought the issue of Slavery back up because of the Wilmot Proviso. Southeners thought the proviso was a plot to bring down slavery

Immigrants

IRISH and GERMAN immigrants came to America in large numbers during 1840

Which territory wanted to be a free state

California

Compromise of 1850 and slaves

This compromise brought about a strict Fugitive Law witch made Northeners, who were mainly anti-slavery, capture and return runaway slaves back to the south.

Radical and Moderate Abolitionist

Radicals believed in violent uprisings against authroity. Moderates believed in political and peaceful methods to get point across

Free-Soilers and slavery

These groups of men wanted the expanison of slavery to stop for other men to get jobs they rightfully deserve

Abolitionist and Free soil sentiment

It grew because they did not want slavery to be extended throughout the country

Dread Scott and John Brown

These two men were involved in seperate events which rose the tensions between North and South who both believed that they were trying to disrupt or keep slavery in America.

Missouri Compromise and slavery

This compromise made slavery illegal over the 36 30 line and legal under that line in the Louisiana Purchase for slave and free states to be equal

Know-Nothings and Nativism

This political party was a Anti-immigrant group of people who believed in a policy that protected interest of native born against immigrants

Popular Soverignty in Kansas-Nebraska Act

This "solution" raised tensions because it would permit slavery into a place where it was prohibited

Lincoln Douglass debates for Lincoln's Future

This showed Lincoln's willingness to end slavery and he got support from Republicans which would play well in the Election of 1860

John Brown, Nat Turner, Harriet Tubman, Harriet Beecher Stowe, William Lloyd Garrison, and Dred Scott

John Brown: Black Abolitionist who raided Harpers Ferry
Nat Turner: Led most bloodiest and succesful slave revolts
Harriet Tubman: Escaped Slave who was a conductor for Underground RR
Harriet Beecher Stowe: Worte Uncle Toms Cabin
William Lloyd Garrison: Abolitionist who found Anti-Slavery Society
Dred Scott: Slave not granted freedom in the Dred Scott Case

Election of 1860

Southeners thought North was trying to end slavery through Lincoln's election and they seceded the Union

Abe Lincoln and Jefferson Davis

Abe Lincoln: President of the Union
Jefferson Davis: President of the Confederacy

Main Reasons for Civil WAr

Re establish Union and Slavery

Significant Military Leaders in North

Ulysess S Grant and George McClellan

Significant Military Leaders in South

Robert E Lee and Stonewall Jackson

Confederate Surrender at Vicksburg

When Confederates surrendered at this location, the Union gained control of the Mississippi River

Antietam

South was hoping for support form Britain. However, after the loss of this battle, Britain remained neutral.

Gettysburg

In 1863, Robert E Lee went into Pennsylvania to fight a bloody 3-day battle

Advantage of North and South

North: Transportation and Manufactoring
South: Military Leadership and Homefield Advantage

Cause of War changed

After the Emancipation Proclamation, Lincoln changed the cause of war from Re-establishing the Union to ending slavery.

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