a pure broken substance that cannot be broken down by physical or chemical means
a mixture that is unevenly mixed
atomic particle with a negative charge
2 or more substances that can be separated by physical methods
anything with mass and volume
smallest part of a compound with properties of that compound (atoms held together by covalent bonding)
a mineral that contains a valuable substance that can be mined by a profit
a mineral composed of a single element
2 or more elements chemically combined
the center of an atom
atomic particle with positive charge
an atom that gains or loses an electron (charged particle)
the measure of how easily a mineral can be scratched
a mixture that is evenly mixed
a solid where the atoms are arranged in repeating or orderly patterns
the ratio of the mass of a substance to the mass of an equal volume of water
atomic particle with no charge
the color of a minerals powder
tendency of a mineral to split along a flat surface
valuable minerals that are prized for their beauty and rarity
atoms of the same element that have the same atomic number, but a different mass number
the smallest part of an element
Example of homogeneous mixture
chocolate chip cookie
Example of heterogeneous mixture
1 of the 2 most abundant elements in Earth's crust
the liquid layer of the Earth's core
the instrument to detect small changes in the Earth's magnetic field
the name of the super continent that broke apart 2 million years ago
the strong lower mantle
the study of the history of the Earth's magnetic field
caused by the changes in the flow of the outer core
lines on a map that show points of equal age
evidence of Earth's ancient climates
the hypothesis that stated the Earth's continents were once combined in one large super continent
Sea Floor Spreading
the theory that explains how new ocean crust is formed at ocean ridges
the type of boundary where 2 tectonic plates move apart
the outer most, solid layer of the Earth that is made up of crust and upper mantle
a long narrow depression that forms at diverging boundaries
movement of plates caused by uplift at ridge systems pushing plates toward subduction zones
the type of boundary where plates move horizontally past each other
the theory that explains the movement and formation of the lithospheric plates
the partially melted (plastic) layer of the upper mantle
the type of boundary where plates move towards each other
huge pieces of the Earth's crust and rigid upper mantle that fit together and cover the Earth's surface
the process where one tectonic plate slides under another plate
movement of plates caused by the weight of a subducting plate pulling the slab behind it
the solid dense center of the planet
the study of ancient life (fossils)
the name given to the ocean that surrounded Wegner's supercontinent
What is the name given to the process that causes warm liquids or gases to rises and cooler liquids and gas to sink?
Fossils or Rock types
List 1 of the 4 pieces of evidence to support the continental drift hypothesis?
Give 2 examples of fold mountains.
Cascades, Andes, Appalachians
Name 3 examples of volcanic mountains.
colder, lower, softer, or gets deeper
List 3 things that happen to the sea floor rock as you move away from a spreading center.
There are 2 plates in the Earth's interior, where are they and why are they significant?
Paleomagnetism, Hot SpotsList
1 of the 5 pieces of evidence to support the plate tectonics theory?
the type of strain that produces permanent deformation
moment magnitude scale
an earthquake measurement scale that combines the energy released, size of the fault, the amount of movement that occurs and stiffness of the rock
when the ground or soil behaves like a liquid during an earthquake
the amount of force acting on crystal rocks per unit area
a measure of the energy released during an earthquake
the record of the seismic waves passing a certain point
causes vibration of the ground produced during an earthquake
the type of seismic waves that squeezes and push rock in the direction the waves are traveling
the point where the earthquake originates
the study of earthquakes
the deformation of materials in response to stress
the size or height of seismic waves
the type of deformation where rock will move back to its original shape
a fracture of the rock where movement occurs
an instrument to detect earthquakes
the study of ancient earthquakes
an earthquake scale that uses a numerical rating system that measures the energy of the largest seismic wave
a vibration f the earth cause by a rapid release of energy
the type of wave that moves similar to a jump rope that is jerked up and down at one end
the point of the earth's surface directly above above the focus
the type of fault that forms due to compression
an earthquake scale that measures the intensity of an earthquake based on damage and other effects
a large ocean wave generate by a vertical movement of the ocean floor during an earthquake
the type of fault forms due to tension
a section of an active fault zone that has not experienced a significant earthquake over a large period of time
hot regions of the Earth's mantle where high- temperature plumes of magma rise
describes all the processes associated with the discharge of magma, hot fluids, and gases
small, steep- sided volcanoes that are built by the accumulative of tephra
long cracks in the Earth's crust
a bowl shaped depression around the vent of the volcano
the tube- like structure in a volcano that carries lava to the surface
a large volcano with broad, gently sloping sides built by non explosive eruptions
the opening at the top of the volcano
explosive volcanos made from layers of lava and ash
forms when lava flows out of long cracks in Earth's surface
large depressions formed when volcanoes collapses after the magma chamber is emptied
the name given to the igneous rock bodies
st. helens, Vesuvius, Krakatoa, Fujiyama
list 4 composite volcanoes
list 1 shield volcano
list 1 cinder cone volcano
Chile 1960; 9.2
Where was largest Earthquake ever recorded? What was the size of it?
Where was the largest Earthquake ever recorded in North America?
What was the size of it?
a place where no waves are received.
the outer core
What is a shadow zone? Explain what causes it.
what is the name of the theory that explains earthquakes called?
How many times has Yellow Stone erupted in the last 2 million years?
What is the name of the largest volcano in the solar system?
Mt. Pelee (volcano)
Nevado del Ruiz
Materials resistant to flow?
the general name for rusted materials when a volcano explodes?
A pluton similar to batholith, but much smaller?
A rapidly moving cloud of hot gases and ash caused by a volcanic eruption?
V.E.I (volcanic eruption index)
The index used to categorize volcanoes based on material ejected?
all organisms (life) of Earth
the system that replaced the metric system; based on a decimal system using the number 10
the study of the interactions of organisms and their surroundings
the principle that describes the behavior of a natural phenomenon
the area from the Earth's surface to its center
all of the water on Earth
shows the results of an experiment are a result of the conditions of the experiment being tested
the study of the earth's atmosphere
the study of the Earth, the processes that change it, and the history of the planet and its life form since its origin
the blanket of gases that surrounds our planet
an explanation based on many observations during repeated investigations
the factor in a experiment that is changed by the experimenter
an educated guess or a testable explanation of a situation
Si units for mass
an an organized series of steps used by a scientist to solve a problem
what can be broken down into 5 major areas of study, astronomy, geology, meteorology, oceanography, and environmental science?
the scientific instrument used to determine the volume of a liquid.
the study of the universe
represents 2.5% of all the world's water
the study of the oceans
the smallest layer of the Earth (by %)
the ratio of mass and volume in a substance (formula=m/v)?
represents 78% of the atmosphere
length x width is the formula for
used to measure the weight of an object
SI units for length
SI units for weight
molten rock below the Earth's surface.
a spongy appearance in igneous rocks.
pieces of rock that are moved by agents of erosion.v
bands or layer of minerals in metamorphic rock.
molten rock (magma) that flows onto the Earth's surface.
refers to the size, shape, and distribution of crystals in igneous rock.
the type of metamorphism that occurs over large areas.
the percentage of open space between grains in a rock.
the type of metamorphism where magma moves through solid rock.
well formed crystals surrounded by fine grained crystals in a igneous rock.
rare, ultrabasic rock where diamonds are formed.
the study of the origin and composition of rocks.
water, ice wedging
name 1 type of weathering and give an example
What type of geologist study rocks and their composition.
Iron Oxide, Silica
2 natural cements
Earth's History, Mineral Resources
Give 2 reasons why rocks are important.
What is the oldest object found on the Earth's surface?
Greenland, South Africa
Name 2 places on Earth where we find the oldest terrestrial rock?
In 1904, What discovery revolutionized the science geology?
What is TN state rock?
Who is the scottish geologist who is sometimes referred to the "Father of Genetics"?
Obsidian (Rock type)