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vocabulary, LOOK ON TEST FOR picture names

element

a pure broken substance that cannot be broken down by physical or chemical means

heterogeneous mixture

a mixture that is unevenly mixed

electron

atomic particle with a negative charge

mixture

2 or more substances that can be separated by physical methods

matter

anything with mass and volume

molecule

smallest part of a compound with properties of that compound (atoms held together by covalent bonding)

ore

a mineral that contains a valuable substance that can be mined by a profit

native

a mineral composed of a single element

compounds

2 or more elements chemically combined

nucleus

the center of an atom

proton

atomic particle with positive charge

ionic

an atom that gains or loses an electron (charged particle)

hardness

the measure of how easily a mineral can be scratched

homogeneous mixture

a mixture that is evenly mixed

crystal

a solid where the atoms are arranged in repeating or orderly patterns

specific gravity

the ratio of the mass of a substance to the mass of an equal volume of water

neutron

atomic particle with no charge

streak

the color of a minerals powder

cleavage

tendency of a mineral to split along a flat surface

gem

valuable minerals that are prized for their beauty and rarity

isotope

atoms of the same element that have the same atomic number, but a different mass number

atom

the smallest part of an element

carbon dioxide

CO2

NaCl

sodium cholride

rust

Fe3O2

Sio2

glass/ sand

C12H22O11

carbohydrates

Sulfuric Acid

H20SO4

air

Example of homogeneous mixture

chocolate chip cookie

Example of heterogeneous mixture

Oxygen

1 of the 2 most abundant elements in Earth's crust

Potassium

K

Hydrogen

H

Aluminum

Al

Mercury

Hg

Nitrogen

N

Silicon

Si

Chlorine

Cl

Magnesium

Mg

Calcium

Ca

outer core

the liquid layer of the Earth's core

magnetometer

the instrument to detect small changes in the Earth's magnetic field

Pangaea

the name of the super continent that broke apart 2 million years ago

Mesosphere

the strong lower mantle

Paleomagnetism

the study of the history of the Earth's magnetic field

Magnetic reversals

caused by the changes in the flow of the outer core

Isochron

lines on a map that show points of equal age

Paleoclimates

evidence of Earth's ancient climates

Continental Drift

the hypothesis that stated the Earth's continents were once combined in one large super continent

Sea Floor Spreading

the theory that explains how new ocean crust is formed at ocean ridges

Diverging

the type of boundary where 2 tectonic plates move apart

Lithosphere

the outer most, solid layer of the Earth that is made up of crust and upper mantle

Rift Valley

a long narrow depression that forms at diverging boundaries

Ridge Push

movement of plates caused by uplift at ridge systems pushing plates toward subduction zones

Transform

the type of boundary where plates move horizontally past each other

Plate tectonics

the theory that explains the movement and formation of the lithospheric plates

asthenosphere

the partially melted (plastic) layer of the upper mantle

Converging

the type of boundary where plates move towards each other

Tectonic Plates

huge pieces of the Earth's crust and rigid upper mantle that fit together and cover the Earth's surface

Subduction

the process where one tectonic plate slides under another plate

Slab Pull

movement of plates caused by the weight of a subducting plate pulling the slab behind it

Inner Core

the solid dense center of the planet

Paleontology

the study of ancient life (fossils)

Panthalassa

the name given to the ocean that surrounded Wegner's supercontinent

Convection

What is the name given to the process that causes warm liquids or gases to rises and cooler liquids and gas to sink?

Fossils or Rock types

List 1 of the 4 pieces of evidence to support the continental drift hypothesis?

Urals, Alps

Give 2 examples of fold mountains.

Cascades, Andes, Appalachians

Name 3 examples of volcanic mountains.

colder, lower, softer, or gets deeper

List 3 things that happen to the sea floor rock as you move away from a spreading center.

Mesosphere, Lithosphere

There are 2 plates in the Earth's interior, where are they and why are they significant?

Paleomagnetism, Hot SpotsList

1 of the 5 pieces of evidence to support the plate tectonics theory?

plastic

the type of strain that produces permanent deformation

moment magnitude scale

an earthquake measurement scale that combines the energy released, size of the fault, the amount of movement that occurs and stiffness of the rock

soil liquefaction

when the ground or soil behaves like a liquid during an earthquake

stress

the amount of force acting on crystal rocks per unit area

magnitude

a measure of the energy released during an earthquake

seismogram

the record of the seismic waves passing a certain point

seismic wave

causes vibration of the ground produced during an earthquake

primary

the type of seismic waves that squeezes and push rock in the direction the waves are traveling

focus

the point where the earthquake originates

seismology

the study of earthquakes

strain

the deformation of materials in response to stress

amplitude

the size or height of seismic waves

elastic

the type of deformation where rock will move back to its original shape

fault

a fracture of the rock where movement occurs

seismometer

an instrument to detect earthquakes

Paleoseismology

the study of ancient earthquakes

Richter Scale

an earthquake scale that uses a numerical rating system that measures the energy of the largest seismic wave

earthquake

a vibration f the earth cause by a rapid release of energy

secondary

the type of wave that moves similar to a jump rope that is jerked up and down at one end

epicenter

the point of the earth's surface directly above above the focus

reverse

the type of fault that forms due to compression

modified Mercalli

an earthquake scale that measures the intensity of an earthquake based on damage and other effects

tsunami

a large ocean wave generate by a vertical movement of the ocean floor during an earthquake

normal

the type of fault forms due to tension

seismic gap

a section of an active fault zone that has not experienced a significant earthquake over a large period of time

hot spots

hot regions of the Earth's mantle where high- temperature plumes of magma rise

volcanism

describes all the processes associated with the discharge of magma, hot fluids, and gases

cinder cone

small, steep- sided volcanoes that are built by the accumulative of tephra

fissure

long cracks in the Earth's crust

crater

a bowl shaped depression around the vent of the volcano

conduit

the tube- like structure in a volcano that carries lava to the surface

shield volcano

a large volcano with broad, gently sloping sides built by non explosive eruptions

vent

the opening at the top of the volcano

composite volcano

explosive volcanos made from layers of lava and ash

flood basalts

forms when lava flows out of long cracks in Earth's surface

caldera

large depressions formed when volcanoes collapses after the magma chamber is emptied

plutons

the name given to the igneous rock bodies

st. helens, Vesuvius, Krakatoa, Fujiyama

list 4 composite volcanoes

Kilauea

list 1 shield volcano

Paricutin

list 1 cinder cone volcano

Chile 1960; 9.2

Where was largest Earthquake ever recorded? What was the size of it?

Alaska; 8.7

Where was the largest Earthquake ever recorded in North America?
What was the size of it?

a place where no waves are received.
the outer core

What is a shadow zone? Explain what causes it.

Elastic Rebound

what is the name of the theory that explains earthquakes called?

How many times has Yellow Stone erupted in the last 2 million years?

3

Olympus Mons

What is the name of the largest volcano in the solar system?

Pyroclastic Flow

Mt. Pelee (volcano)

Tsunami

Krakatoa

Tambora

Starvation

Lahar (mudflow

Nevado del Ruiz

Viscosity

Materials resistant to flow?

Tephra

the general name for rusted materials when a volcano explodes?

Stock

A pluton similar to batholith, but much smaller?

Pyroclastic Flow

A rapidly moving cloud of hot gases and ash caused by a volcanic eruption?

V.E.I (volcanic eruption index)

The index used to categorize volcanoes based on material ejected?

biosphere

all organisms (life) of Earth

SI system

the system that replaced the metric system; based on a decimal system using the number 10

environmental science

the study of the interactions of organisms and their surroundings

scientific law

the principle that describes the behavior of a natural phenomenon

geosphere

the area from the Earth's surface to its center

hydrosphere

all of the water on Earth

control

shows the results of an experiment are a result of the conditions of the experiment being tested

meteorology

the study of the earth's atmosphere

geology

the study of the Earth, the processes that change it, and the history of the planet and its life form since its origin

atmosphere

the blanket of gases that surrounds our planet

scientific theory

an explanation based on many observations during repeated investigations

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