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Robert Hooke

Named the cell when looking at dead cork wood.

Cell Theory

(1)All living things are made up of cells (basic unit of life)
(2)All cells come from other living cells

ocular

eyepiece: looks through and magnifies by ten

objective lens

one of three lenses that magnify the image 4X,10X, or 40X

nose

part of microscope that holds and allows you to rotate the objective lenses

diaphram

Regulates the amount of light passing through the stage opening

fine focus

moves the stage to get the image in detailed focus

coarse focus

moves the slide to get the image in general focus

Resolution

How sharp or detailed the image is. The closer you zoom in, the lower the resolution

FOV

how large of an area you can see/focus on at once through a lense

Depth of field

how far the microscope is focusing in on different levels of the object

micrometer

a metric unit equal to one millionth of a meter

prokaryotic

a cell with which operates without a nucleus (bacteria only)

eukaryotic

a cell which has a nucleus (everything but bacteria)

Nucleus

holds DNA(cell instructions), controls cell activity

chloroplast

creates sugar through photosynthesis "sugar factories", plant only

ribosome

protein factory, makes proteins for cell

cell wall

plant only, supports and protects plant cell, gives shape to cell, made of cellulose which animals can't digest (fiber)

cell or plasma membrane

gatekeeper, controls what enters and leaves the cell, phospholipid/protein sandwich

nucleolus (one or more)

little nucleus, produces ribosomes

mitochondria

powerhouse of the cell, produces energy (ATP) from oxygen and sugar(Cellular respiration)

golgi apparatus

stack of membranes that packages molecules and sends them out of the cell

vacuole

larger in plant cells, used for storage of water, food, waste, ect. May carry out digestion or water balance

chromosome (chromatin)

contain DNA and protein, found in the nucleus

cytoplasm

a jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are found, chemical reactions (metabolism) occurs here

centrioles

animal only, involved in cell division

Rough endoplasmic reticulum

System of internal tunnel) within the cytoplasm. Membranes are rough due to the presence of ribosomes. functions in transport proteins within the cytoplasm

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

System of internal tunnel) within the cytoplasm. Produce and transport materials like lipids(fats)

Nuclear membrane

controls what goes in and out of the nucleus

lysosome

an organelle found in the cytoplasm of most cells when broken "eats" cell and recycles material

peroxisome

breaks down some toxins in the cell

secretory vesicle

small, membrane bound sacs that transport packaged chemicals from golgi apparatus to exterior of the cell.

cytoskeleton

network of protein filaments within some cells that helps the cell maintain its shape and is involved in many forms of cell movement

flagella

whip-like structure used for cell movement

cilia

short hair-like structures projecting from a cell that move a cell through its surroundings

animal cell

have no cell wall, use have centrioles for reproduction

plant cells

have a cell wall as well as a cell membrane, do not have centrioles for reproduction.

active transport

transport of (usually) larger particles across the cell membrane, using energy from the cell. i.e. diffusion of starch through the membrane.

passive transport

movement of particles across the cell semipermiable cell membrane without the use of energy from the cell. i.e. osmosis of water through the cell membrane.

Diffusion

the spread of molecules around a solution

osmosis

A kind of diffusion which is the distribution of water through a cell membrane

Hypertonic Solution

when the solution has a higher concentration of water molecules than the cell (flows in)

isotonic solution

when the solution and the cell have an equal concentration of water molecules

hypotonic solution

when the solution has a lower concentration of water than the cell (flows out)

plasmolysis

plasmolysis is when a cell loses water

cytolysis

the disintegration of a cell

turgor pressure

Water pressure

Semipermeable

Something which only some things can pass through

telophase

Two nuclei begin to form around the new bundles of chromosomes. A cleavage furrow(pinching in of membrane) forms in animal cells and a cell plate (new cell wall) in plant cells

metaphase

Sister chromatids line up at the middle of the cell (equator). They are attached to spindle fibers which help get them in place.

anaphase

The sister chromatids separate at the centromere and pull apart bringing identical DNA to each side of the cell

prophase

Chromosomes begin to condense and become visable as two chromatids connected by a centromere. Nuclear membrane is disappearing. Spindle fibers begin to form.

cytokinesis

In animal cells the cleavage furrow pinches in until the cells separate into two daughter cells.

interphase

The stage of the cell cycle when the cell is: growing, engaged in metabolic activity, carrying out its normal functions, and DNA replicates (makes a copy of itself) at the end of this phase.

Plasma Membrane

The gatekeeper of the cell (Cell Membrane). Controls what goes in and out

solution

Water with a substance which is dissolved in it

solute

the substance dissolved in a solution

solvent

the substance which dissolves the solute

osmotic equilibrium

osmotic equilibrium occurs when osmosis is happening at the same rate both in and out through the cell membrane, if osmosis is still occurring at all

homeostasis

the process by which organisms maintain a stable internal environment

mitosis

the process of mitosis is important to complex biological organisms like us because it is why we grow, and if we didn't grow, we would only have the lifetime of a single cell. It is important to single cellular organisms because if it could not reproduce, there would be no way for the organism to pass on it's genes and it would die out as soon as it came to be.

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