Neonatal Development

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Shari belongs to a multigenerational kinship unit consisting of parents, children, grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins. This unit is referred to as a (n)

extended family.

Conditions that increase the likelihood of a negative outcome or result are called __________ factors.

risk

Rubella has a disastrous impact if it is contracted during the first trimester of a pregnancy, yet has hardly any impact if contracted later in a pregnancy. This is an example of

a critical period.

Marsha is taking a class in lifespan development. This class addresses the study of humans

from conception through older adulthood and death.

One-year-old Tamara's height and weight, along with her newfound ability to walk,

interacts with her cognitive, personality, and social development.

Paul's mother has been teaching him to bake bread. She tells him, "I will help you follow the recipe a few more times, but soon you will have to try it on your own." According to Vygotsky's sociocultural theory, Paul's mother is engaging in

scaffolding.

Piaget and his wife kept journals noting how their children developed and interacted with one another in the home. According to the bioecological approach, Piaget was studying the children in their

microsystem.

Daniel was embarrassed by his coach for not making a basket during an important game. Since then, whenever he gets the ball and heads down the court, he gets an overwhelming feeling of anxiety that prevents him from thinking clearly when he tries to shoot the ball. This is an example of

classical conditioning.

Which data-collection format should a scientist choose if she wants the information she collects to have the highest levels of validity and reliability?

standardized test

Every time Billy tries to open the kitchen cupboard, he gets his fingers pinched in the door. Eventually, Billy no longer tries to open the cupboard door. This is an example of

punishment.

Which of the following most clearly demonstrates the influence of environment?

Sally, who was adopted at the age of 2, and walks like her adoptive mother

Doug has been asked by his professor to participate in a kinship study. Who else will most likely be included in the study?

Doug's brother or sister

Ulrich is heterozygous for a trait therefore he displays the __________ trait in his phenotype.

dominant

Permanent genetic alterations that may produce harmful characteristics are called

mutations.

Ovulation refers to the

expulsion of an ovum from the ovary.

Which of the following factors can have vast consequences on a child's development?

all of the above

The normal complement of sex chromosomes for a woman is ___, and for a man it is ___.

XX; XY

Several members of the Theroz family suffer from schizophrenia. Concordance rates for schizophrenia are highest between

members of monozygotic twin pairs.

Which of the following is NOT the responsibility of a genetic counselor?

advising clients on which course of action to take

Dan and Diane have decided to utilize technology to overcome their infertility problems. They opt to use a procedure in which a mature ovum is surgically removed, fertilized in a laboratory dish, and then implanted in the mother's uterus. This technique is called

in vitro fertilization.

Carl and Eleanor have been going for a morning run for the past three years. They are concerned about whether or not they can continue now that Eleanor is pregnant. Which of the following statements best describes the appropriate level of exercise for pregnant women?

Pregnant women should exercise moderately throughout their pregnancy.

Tehra's obstetrician is using a medical procedure that employs high-frequency sound waves to detect the outline of the fetus and to observe its movements. This is called a(n)

ultrasound.

Melissa has had two miscarriages and is understandably anxious about her third pregnancy. She realizes that a miscarriage, or spontaneous abortion, is most likely to occur in which trimester of the pregnancy?

first

Doctors warn that smoking during pregnancy contributes to which of the following?

all of the above

Which of the following is true in regards to spontaneous abortions and stillbirth?

Males are more likely than females to be affected.

Because of the rapid weight gain experienced by Marilyn early in her pregnancy, the doctor ordered a(n) _________ to see if she was having twins.

ultrasound

Jane is 8 weeks pregnant and has just contracted rubella. If you were Jane's physician, what information would you give her regarding the health of her unborn baby?

The child will almost certainly be deaf.

If a mother wanted to have a clear image of the fetus in her womb, which procedure would she most likely undergo?

ultrasound

Which of the following statements is correct in regards to prenatal care?

Experts believe that more emphasis should be placed on proper prenatal care even before women get pregnant.

Children born to women who smoke during pregnancy tend to show

all of the above

Postmature babies tend to be

long and thin, because their food supply has been insufficient at the end of gestation.

Baby Joey is in the state of active sleep. This state of arousal corresponds most closely to _______ in adults.

rapid eye movement sleep

If breathing has not begun within 5 minutes after birth, the baby is at risk of developing

brain damage.

Kathleen is in labor and is told by her physician that the baby's feet, rather than his head, are moving down the birth canal first. What sort of delivery is likely to be performed?

cesarean delivery

According to the Kauai longitudinal study, which of the following factors seems to protect some individuals from the harmful effects of birth complications?

all of the above

Which of the following newborns would have the highest Apgar score?

Carmela, who is coughing and crying, is pink, and has a rapid pulse

Who is most likely to have a low-birth-weight baby?

Dana, who is 37, underweight, smokes, and has had five previous pregnancies

Upon seeing her newborn baby brother, Wanda exclaims, "He looks all oily and shiny!" Wanda has noticed the

vernix caseosa.

Cesarean deliveries

are often performed unnecessarily.

Freda loves listening to her neonate daughter's __________ heartbeat as she nurses her in the quiet of the night.

fast and irregular

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