AP Euro Terms Ch.12
|Catherine D' Medici||Regent of France who tried to balance the power of the radical Catholics (Guise Family) and the Protestants (Bourbon Family). Sided with each faction at different periods of time. Architect? of the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre. Eventually ousted by Henry Bourbon.|
|Politiques||Frenchmen who wanted to see religious passions taken out of politics. They wanted to subordinate theological doctrine to political unity, urging tolerance, moderation and compromise- even indifference -in religious matters. Early advocates for the separation of church and state. "believed that no religious truth was worth the ravages of a civil war"|
|Henry III (Henry Valois)||- French catholic king during the War of the 3 Henries. Assassinates the radical catholic Henry Guise, and teams up with Henry of Navarre to defeat the Catholic league|
|Henry Guise||leader of the Ultra-Catholics, opposed the Huguenots, assassinated by Henry III (Valois) in the War of the Three Henrys|
|House of Bourbon|| Beginning of Chapter: Huguenot Noble Family - headed by Henry Navarre (later Henry IV) |
- End of Chapter: Royal House of France
- big catholic family
|Huguenots|| French Calvinists|
-Only 10% of Frenchies, but 40% of French nobility.
-Wanted political sovereignty in their region and thus supported political decentralization
|St Bartholomew's Day Massacre|| 3 day slaughter of Huguenots. example of the savagry of the era|
- For protestants throughout Europe, it turned a local fight between nobles into an international struggle for survival against an enemy whose actions justified any means of resistance.
|Protestant Resistance Theory||Protestants originally believed that the religious should be obedient to secular rulers (even if they were ungodly) based on Romans 13:1|
They gradually embraced the concept of opposition to ungodly rule (ie Catholic rule)
One of the most famous documents in this transformation was John Knox's First Blast of the Trumpet against the Terrible Regiment of Women in which he argued that the removal of a heathen monarch was not only permissible, but a Christian Duty!
|The Catholic League||- a Radical Catholic group under Henry Guise created to destroy the Huguenots and put a good Catholic (Guise) on the throne.|
|"Paris is worth a Mass"|| Famous quotation from Henry of Navarre when he converted to Catholicism in order to become King of France. Perfect example of the intermingling of religious/political struggles.|
English Translation: "Governing France is worth going to a church I don't really believe in"
|Edict of Nantes|| Henry IV's religious settlement in France.|
It granted rights to the Huguenots but made Catholicism the official religion of France
Significance: first document of religious toleration in Europe
|The Fuggers|| - Rich Banking family in Augsburg (German version of the Medicis). Bankrolled the Hapsburg. |
- Philip II will borrow/spend like a maniac. He will eventually default on his loans, thus bankrupting the people he borrowed from: the Fuggers.
|Margaret of Parma||Ruler of the Dutch under Philip's rule. Her easy treatment allowed the calvanists to go a little berserk. Philip replaces her with the more brutal Duke of Alba|
|Zeeland||one of the provinces of the Netherlands (Dutch). Just recognize it as dutch if you ever see it.|
|William of Orange||Leader of the Dutch Revolt against Philip's Spain. Went from Catholic, to Lutheran, before becoming a Calvinist. United both Catholics and Protestants against Catholic Philip.|
|Antwerp||Major commercial/trading city of the Dutch. |
Sacked by the Spanish in the Revolt of the Netherlands. Referred to as the Spanish Fury. This brutality convinced the Catholic southern provinces to unite with the Protestant northern provinces against Catholic Spain.
A good example of the ferocity that wars of religion produce.
Amsterdam will become the major trading city as a result of this. : )
|Battle of Lepanto||Naval battle in Mediterranean Sea between Christian Spain and Muslim Turks. Philip ejected the Turks from the sea. Example of Philips' desire to be "the most catholic king"|
|Iconclasm||Generally: The Destruction of Religious imagery (icons)|
Specifically: Dutch Calvinist of the Netherlands destroyed images in Catholic churches. This sparked Philips attempt to pacify the Dutch (which only served to unify the Dutch against him)
Uses: use it in an essay on Religion and politics. or how calvanism was a destabalizing force in 16th century europe.
|Sack of Antwerp|| City destroyed in the Dutch Revolt. |
Angry/unpaid spanish soldiers decided to pay themselves by looting Antwerp for 3 days (killing 7000). Amsterdam will benefit by becoming the new commercial center for the dutch. Example of the autrocities both sides will commit in the name of religion and others try to avenge.
|Elizabeth I||Reigned 1558 - 1603 (the end of the Tudor family tree)|
Exceptional monarch of England, created a strong nation poised to expand into a global empire.
- - Domestic Policy: created a religious settlement between Catholics and Protestants that prevented religious differences from tearing England apart. Created the modern Anglican Church with Protestant Doctrine and traditional Catholic ritual
-- Foreign Policy: supported Protestants throughout Europe (notably the Dutch Revolt)
Successfully protected England from Spanish domination.
|39 Articles of Faith||The list of beliefs of the Church of England created by Elizabeth. They are moderate in their protestant ideas. The 39 are an easing up of the 42 Articles created by the radical protestants under her brother, Edward VI.|
|The Elizabethan Settlement||This is the nickname for the compromise establishing the look of England's official church (The Church of England) by the Act of Uniformity. Most people accepted it. Only Extreme Protestants (Calvinists-Puritans) and Extreme Catholics were unhappy with this compromise.|
|Act of Uniformity||Elizabeth's attempt to reduce the hatred between Catholics and protestants in England.|
Each wanted the church of england to be in line with their beliefs. Elizabeth split the difference. The Church of England would be protestant (with protestant doctrines) BUT would avoid the excesses of Protestantism by keeping the look/feel of the catholic church. It would keep the pomp and formality of catholic liturgy. However, There would be ONE church in England. A Uniformity of worship throughout the country. Elizabeth showed little mercy to any who threatened the unity of her rule.
|Mary Stuart||Cousin & rival of Elizabeth I. Catholic extrimsts hoped to replace Elizabeth with Mary Stuart|
Elizabeth eventually had her executed. Elizabeth could be cunning at times (fox) but she'd whoop you if you needed it (lion). Mary got the Whoopin.
Oh, and her execution prompted Philip II to send the Armada to England
|Puritans||English Calvinists who (working within the Anglican Church) wanted to PURIFY the church of every remnant of Catholic stuff. Both in the practices of the Church and of its doctrines. They wanted a plain church service, in English, with very little ritual and formality. They also opposed the Episcopal system (favoring a Presbyterian mode)|
|Episcopal System|| Any Church system that is extremely hierarchical. The Catholic Church is an Episcopal system. Elizabeth's Church of England is also an Episcopalian system.|
- The Anglican Church (Church of England) in America is called the Episcopal Church. FYI
|Presbyterians||English Calvinists who wanted to create semi-independent presbyteris (and rejected the Episcopal system of the Anglican Church). John Knox would establish this form of church in Scotland. Thus, Scottish Calvinists are . . . Presbyterians!|
|Congregationalists||the most extreme protestants. Congregationalists take it one notch past Presbyterians. Rather than having local AREAS be independent. Congregationalists believe that each individual CHURCH should run itself. They are also called Separatists. They are persecuted and flee to America. We call them . . . Pilgrims!!|
|Spanish Armada|| Large Spanish fleet sent by Philip II to attack England's Elizabeth I in 1587. The English won a stunning victory.|
- Impact: gave heart to Protestant resistors across Europe. Dealt a blow to Spanish power from which it never recovered. England (while still a second-rate power) is set up to expand into a global empire.
|30 years war||Europe's last and most destructive religious war. It began as a religious war between Protestants and Catholics within the Holy Roman Empire, but spread into an international political conflict when catholic France sides with Protestants. Ends with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648.|
|Emperor Ferdinand||Began the 30 years war by trying to pacify the Calvinistic Palatinate. Eventually tried to eradicate all protestantism in the Holy Roman Empire during the first phase of that war.|
|Frederick of the Palatinate||Leader of the Protestant princes against Ferdinand during the first phase of the war. Failed.|
|Bohemia||site of the beginning of the 30 years war in the H.R.E. Part of Hapsburg domain. Bohemian Nobles depose Ferdinand and invite Frederick to rule Bohemia|
|Prague||Capital of Bohemia (modern day Czechoslovakia). Location of the Defenestration of Prague which is another example of the ferocity that wars of religion produce.|
|Defenestration of Prague|| Bohemian Calvinists threw Emperor Ferdinand's catholic boyz out of a window into a pile of pooh. They were not happy. Started the 30 Years War.|
Significances: Shows the extreme behavior religious passion will stir up in this chapter. example (if a minor one) of the atrocities people will commit.
|Gustavus Adolphus||- Lutheran king of Sweden who helped the Lutherans in Germany by sending in his army. Saved Protestantism in the 30 Years War. Died at the successful Battle of Lutzen|
|Cardinal Richelieu||chief French minister who led Catholic France against Catholic Germany in the 30 years war. War became (catholic) Bourbon vs (catholic) Hapsburg|
|Sack of Magdeburg||City destroyed in the 30 Years War. Example of the atrocities both sides will commit and try to avenge.|
|Battle of Lutzen||Battle in which Gustav Adolphus was killed, thus ending any real hope the protestants had against Emperor Ferdinand|
|Cardinal Richelieu's Motives in the 30 years War|| Feared encirclement by the Spanish and Austrian Hapsburgs.|
his motives were to weaken the Hapsburgs and gain power for France
|Duke of Alba|| Took a "get tough" approach against the rebellious Dutch. |
Counterproductive in that it only unified the diverse dutch people against phillip.
|Treaty of Westphalia||- Written in French (not Latin) and without the Pope's consultation (thus signifying that State and Church affairs were separate) |
- Added Calvinism to the Peace of Augsburg (legal recognition)
- granted independence to the Swiss Confederacy from the H.R.E.
- recognized Dutch independence from Spain
IMPACT: France is the new international power. Spain is done.
Within the Holy Roman Empire: this treaty perpetuated the political weakness of the HRE.
2 German states would be international powers and rivals within Germany: Austria and Prussia
upstart Brandenburg - Prussia becomes the most powerful German state in the northeast.