BIOL 1442 Final Exam

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Exam 1 Questions Pretest 1 Questions

A plant will recognize a pathogenic invader if

if it has the specific R gene that corresponds to the pathogen molecule encoded by an Avr gene.

In a fibrous root system the

roots help prevent erosion AND the roots are actually derived from stem tissue.

Organs to function:
1) Petals a) attach flower to stem
2) Sepals b) male reproductive organ
3) Stamen c)attract pollinators
4) Carpel d) female reproductive organ

1-a Petals attach flower to stem
2-b Sepals are a male reproductive organ
3-d Stamen is a female reproductive organ
4-c Carpels attract pollinators

Loams are the most fertile soil because they have

a good balance of drainage, aeration, and water storage.

auxin + cytokinin results in

cell division

all of the following has an effect on water potential in plants except

DNA structure

If a short-day plant has a critical night length of 15 hours, then which of the following 24-hour cycles will prevent flowering?

8 hrs light/ 8 hrs dark/light flash/8 hrs dark
(anything that provides less than 15 hrs uninterrupted dark)

If the pressure potential =25 MPa and solute potential = -0.30 MPa in a plant cell and you put that plant cell in a sucrose solution with a water potential =0.55 MPa, the water will

flow into the plant cell.

which soil horizon would you find the most organisms in?

horizon A (the next layer under the surface)

All of the following may function in signal transduction in plants except

nonrandom mutations

Stolons found on strawberry plants are

horizontal runners that enable asexual reproduction.

subsidence occurs due to

Irrigation drying up aquifers

in order to get past the Casparian strip and enter the xylem, minerals must take the

symplastic route

which of the following is the correct sequence from the growing tips of the root upwards:
I. root cap
II. zone of elongation
III. zone of cell division
IV. zone of cell maturation
V. apical meristem

I, V, III, II, IV
root cap, then apical meristem, then zone of cell division, zone of elongation, and zone of cell maturation

decreasing the pH of the soil would

increase the chance of runoff of cations.

list the steps in correct order of the development of the female gametophyte

megasporocyte--> meiosis --> 1 surviving megaspore --> mitosis ---> one large cell with 8 haploid nuclei

In monocot embryos, which of the coleoptile, coleorhiza, and scutellum covers the root, and which covers the shoot?

the coleoptile covers the shoot, the coleorhizae covers the root.

A ceiba tree is a tropical tree that has

buttress roots to help support it

Plant cells are happiest in a(n) environment..

hypotonic environment

arrange the following five elements in an order that explains the mass flow of materials in the phloem.
1) water diffuses into the sieve tubes
2) leaf cells produce sugar by photosynthesis
3) Sugar is actively transported into sieve tubes
4) Sugar diffuses into the sink
5) Sugar moves down the stem

2,3,1,5,4
2) leaf cells produce sugar by photosynthesis
3) sugar is actively transported into sieve tubes
1) water diffuses into the sieve tubes
5) sugar moves down the stem
4) sugar diffuses into the sink

Breaking of seed dormancy requires environmental cues such as

light, rainfall, temperature, and digestive enzymes

how does abscisic acid (ABA) help plants withstand drought?

ABA induces the second messenger Ca^2+ to open K+ channels in the guard cells, reducing turgor pressure, closing the stomata

Apical dominance is inhibited by

animals eating the tops of plants AND
trees shading out the plants

scientists were able to prevent aluminum toxicity in papaya plants by genetically engineering a gene to

secrete an acid that bound up the aluminum making it unavailable to the plant

Which of the following is true in plants?
a) mitosis occurs in gametophytes to produce gametes
b) meiosis occurs in sporophytes to produce spores
c) the gametophyte is within the flower in angiosperms.
d) A and B only
e) A, B, and C

A, B, and C.
In plants, mitosis occurs in gametophytes to produce gametes, meiosis occurs in sporophytes to produce spores, and the gametophyte is within the flower in angiosperms.

vascular plant tissue includes all of the following cell types except:
vessel elements, sieve cells, tracheids, companion cells, cambium cells

cambium cells

Which of the following does not reduce the level of the Pfr form of phytochrome?
exposure to far-red light, exposure to red light, long dark period, destruction of phytochrome, synthesis of phosphorylating enzymes

exposure to red light

Which structure is incorrectly paired with its tissue system?
a) root hair- dermal tissue
b) pith- ground tissue
c) guard cell- dermal cell
d) companion cell- ground tissue
e) tracheid- vascular tissue

companion cell- ground tissue

In sporadic self-incompatibility, a S1 pollen grain from a S1S2 plant can only fertilize an: S2S3 plant, S3S5 plant, S1S2 plant, a and b, a, b and c.

b) n S3S5 plant

secretion of K+ out of guard cells causes water to flow ____ the guard cells, ____ the stomata.

secretion of K+ out of the guard cells causes water to flow out of the guard cells, closing the stomata

Which process forms the sporophyte?
a) meiosis of the gametophytes
b) mitosis of the gametophytes
c) meiosis of microsporocytes
d) mitosis of microspores
e) fertilization of the gametes

fertilization of the gametes

Match the bacteria to its function in the nitrogen cycle.
1) Nitrifying Bacteria a) ammonium to nitrate
2) denitrifying bacteria
b)gaseous nitrogen to ammonia
3) nitrogen-fixing bacteria c) humus to ammonia
4) ammonifying bacteria
d) converts nitrate to gaseous nitrogen

nitrifying bacteria -->ammonium to nitrate
denitrifying bacteria --> converts nitrate to ammonia
nitrogen-fixing bacteria --> gaseous nitrogen to ammonia
ammonifying bacteria -->humus to ammonia

In plants, trichomes are found on the

stems

As a youngster, you drive a nail in the trunk of a young tree that is 3 meters tall. The nail is about 1.5 meters from the ground. Fifteen years later, you return and discover the tree has grown to a height of 30 meters. The nail is now _____ meters from the ground.

1.5 meters

These plants live in acidic bogs and obtain their nitrogen source from insects.

pitcher plant

All of the following enter the plant through the roots except: carbon dioxide, nitrogen, potassium, water, and calcium

carbon dioxide

In plants proton pumps function to

cotransport anions.

What is the result of double fertiliziation in angiosperms?

both a diploid embryo and triploid endosperm are formed.

Which statement is correct regarding an ethylene-insensitive mutant (EIN)?
a) the EIN lacks a functional ethylene receptor and does not respond to ethylene, but still exhibits the triple response.
b) the EIN lacks a functional ethylene receptor and does not respond to ethylene or exhibit the triple response
c) the EIN ethylene receptor is always turned on, and exhibits the triple response without any ethylene present.
d) the EIN ethylene receptor is always turned on and does not exhibit the triple response

b) The EIN lacks a functional ethylene receptor and does not respond to ethylene or exhibit the triple response.

What is the main force by which most of the water within xylem vessels moves toward the top of a tree?

evaporation of water through the stomata

Which of the following is incorrectly paired with its structure and function?

Pericycle- waterproof ring of cells surrounding the central stele in roots

There are several properties of a soil in which typical plants would grow well. Of the following, which would be the least conductive to plant growth? abundant humus, numerous soil organisms, compacted soil, high porosity, high cation exchange capacity

compacted soil

the acid growth hypothesis states that

auxin activates proton pumps, decreasing the pH of the cell wall.

A mineral deficiency is likely to affect older leaves more than younger leaves if

the mineral is very mobile within the plant

what two hormones regulate a plant from being in dormancy versus germination

gibberelling and abscisic acid

primary difference between ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae (arbuscular)?

ectomycorrhizae grow between root cells, whereas endomycorrhizae grow into the root cell wall.

where does meiosis occur in flowering plants?

megasporocyte and microsporocyte

plants hormone effects vary depending on: concentration, developmental stage of the plant, species of plant, A and B, A and C

A and B: concentration and developmental stage of the plant.

which of the following is the correct sequence of events in a pollen sac?
a) sporangia --> meoisis --> two haploid cells --> meiosis --> two pollen grain cells
b) pollen grain--> meiosis --> two generative cells -->two tube cells per pollen grain
c) two haploid cells -->meiosis --> generative cell--> tube cell-->fertilization --> pollen grain
d) pollen grain --> mitosis --> microspores --> meiosis --> generative cell plus tube cell
e) microsporocyte --> meiosis --> microspores --> mitosis --> two haploid cells per pollen grain

microsporocyte --> meiosis--> microspores --> mitosis --> two haploid cells per pollen grain

a cactus living in the desert will have ____ stomata compared to a tropical plant living in a rainforest.

less

Which of the following are the water-conducting cells of xylem, have thick walls, and are dead at functional maturity?

tracheids and vessel elements

For this pair of items, choose the option that best describes their relationship.
a) the number of cells within the embryo sac.
b) the number of nuclei within the embryo sac.

item a) is less than item b)

A soil well suited for the growth of most plants would have all of the following properties except...

a high pH

which of the following arise from lateral meristem activity? secondary xylem, leaves, trichomes, tubers, all of the above

secondary xylem

Which soil minerals is most likely leached away during a hard rain? Na+, K+, Ca^2-, No3-, H+

NO3-

The value for (psi) in root tissue was found to be -0.15 MPa. If you take the root tissue and place it in a 0.1 M solution of sucrose (psi = -0.23), net water flow would

be from the tissue into the sucrose solution.

Which of the following is true in plants?
a) mitosis occurs in gametophytes to produce gametes
b) meiosis occurs in sporophytes to produce spores
c) the gametophyte is within the flower in angiosperms.
d) A and B only
e) A, B, and C

A, B, and C: mitosis occurs in gametophtes to produce gamete; meiosis occurs in sporophytes to produce spores; the gametophyte is within the flower in angiosperms

what is the role of proton pumps in root hair cells?

acquire minerals from the soil

Gas exchange, necessary for photosynthesis, can occur most easily in which leaf tissue? epidermis, palisade mesophyll, spongy mesophyll, vascular tissue, bundle sheath

spongy mesophyll

In plant roots, the Casparian strip is correctly described by which of the following?
a) located in walls between endodermal cells and cortex cells
b) provides energy for active transport of minerals into stele from the cortex
c) ensures all minerals are absorbed from soil in equal amounts
d) ensures all water and dissolved substances must pass through cell membrane before entering stele.
e) provides increased surface area for absorption of mineral nutrients.

d) it ensures that all the water and dissolved substances must pass through a cell membrane before entering the stele

Which of the following types of plants is not able to self-pollinate? dioecious, monoecious, complete, wind-pollinated, insect-pollinated

dioecious

Some plants extract and concentrate heavy metals from the soil. A current use for such plants is...

photoremediation of polluted sites

All of the following cell types are correctly matched with their functions except...
a) companion cell- formation of secondary xylem and phloem
b) guard cell- regulation of transpiration
c) sieve-tube member- translocation
d) vessel element- water transport
e) mesophyll- photosynthesis

companion cell- formation of secondary xylem and phloem

What are the three main elements on which plant growth and development depend?

oxygen, carbon, hydrogen

what is the main cause of guttation in plants?

root pressure

The vascular system of a three-year old eudicot system consists of...

3 rings of xylem and 1 of phloem

Transpiration in plants requires all of the following except

active transport through xylem cells

Three mitotic divisions within the female gametophyte of the megaspore produce

three antipodal cells, two polar nuclei, one egg, and two synergids.

Iron deficiency is often indicated by yellowing in newly formed leaves. This suggests that iron...

is a relatively immobile nutrient in plants.

Which of the following have thick, lignified walls that help support mature, non-growing parts of the plant? parenchyma cells, collenchyma cells, sclerenchyma cells, tracheids and vessel elements, sieve-tube elements

sclerenchyma cells

Nitrogen fixation is a process that

converts nitrogen gas into ammonia

Reddish-purple coloring leaves, especially along the margins of young leaves, is a typical symptom of deficiency of which element?

P (Phosphorous)

Guard cells do which of the following? protect the endodermis, accumulate K+ and close the stomata, contain chloroplasts that import K+ directly into the cells, guard against mineral loss through the stomata, help balance photosynthesis and transpiration

help balance photosynthesis and transpiration

The embryo of a grass seed is enclosed by two protective sheaths, a(n) ____, which covers the young shoot, and a(n) _____, which covers the young root.

coleoptile; coleorhiza

Which part of a plant absorbs most of the water and minerals taken up from the soil?

root hairs

Which of the following statements about a seed produced by apomixis is incorrect?
a) the seed coat is made of diploid cells derived from the ovule of a flower.
b) the embryo consists of diploid cells derived from fertilization of a haploid egg by a haploid sperm
c) cotyledons are the primary food storage tissue of the embryo
d) a diploid embryo is contained within the seed.
e) embryo of the seed is a clone

the embryo consists of diploid cells derived from fertilization of a haploid egg by a haploid sperm.

Photosynthesis begins to decline when leaves wilt because

stomata close, preventing CO2 entry into the leaf

a vessel element would likely lose its protoplast in which section of a root?

zone of maturation

a plant that has small, green petals is most likely to be pollinated by...

wind-pollination

Which of the following is not a function of rhizobacteria?
a) produce hormones that stimulate plant growth
b) produce antibiotics that protect roots from disease
c) absorb toxic metals
d) carry out nitrogen fixation
e) supply growing roots with glucose

supply growing rots with glucose

What is the driving force for the movement of materials in the phloem of plants?

a difference in osmotic water potential between the source and the sink.

Which of the following root tissues gives rise to lateral roots? endodermis, phloem, cortex, epidermis, pericycle

pericycle

which of the following is a correct statement about sugar movement in phloem?
a)diffusion can account for the observed rates of transport
b) movement can occur both upward and downward in the plant
c) sugar is translocated from sinks to sources
d) only phloem cells with nuclei can perform sugar movement
e) sugar transport does not require energy.

movement can occur both upward and downward in the plant

hyphae form a covering over roots. Altogether, these hyphae create a large surface area that helps to do which of the following? aid in absorbing minerals and ions, maintain cell shape, increase cellular respiration, anchor a plant, or protect the roots from ultraviolet light.

aid in absorbing minerals and ions

Water flows into the source end of a sieve tube because

sucrose has been actively transported into the sieve tube, making it hypertonic.

Golden rice is a transgenic variety that

contains daffodil genes that increase vitamin A content.

The type of mature cell that a particular embryonic plant cell will become appears to be determined mainly by...

the cell's final position in a developing organ

what is the first organ to emerge from a germinating eudicot seed?

radicle

what are epiphytes?

plants that grow on other plants but do not obtain nutrients from their hosts.

Which of the following does not affect self-shading? stem thickness, phyllotaxy, self-pruning, leaf area index, leaf orientation

stem thickness

some of the problems associated with intensive irrigation include all but...

over fertilization

According to the ABC model of floral development, which genes would be expressed in a showy ornamental flower with multiple sepals and petals but no stamens or carpels?

A and B genes only

A plant cell with a [psi]S of -0.65 MPa maintains a constant volume when bathed in a solution that has [psi]S of -0.30 MPa and is in an open container. The cell has...

[psi]P of +0.35 MPa.

Which of the following statements is correct about the basal cell in a zygote?
a) it develops into the root of the embryo
b) it forms the suspensor that anchors the embryo
c) it results directly from the fertilization of the polar nuclei by a sperm nucleus
d) it divides and initiates the two cotyledons
e) it forms the proembryo

it forms the suspensor that anchors the embryo

Recent research has shown that pollination requires that carpels recognize pollen grains as "self or non-self." for self-incompatibility, the system requires

the rejection of self cells

Additional vascular tissue produced as secondary growth in a root originates from which cells?

vascualar cambium

which of the following is not part of an older tree's bark? cork, cork cambium, lenticels, secondary xylem, secondary phloem.

secondary xylem

Stomata open when guard cells

become more turgid because of an addition of K+, followed by the osmotic entry of water

Which of the following essential nutrients plays an essential role in the opening and closing of the stomatal aperture? Fe, Bo, Mg, H, K

K (potassium)

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