our awareness of ourselves and our environment
the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)
the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks
the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere
failing to notice changes in the environment
the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle
rapid eye movement sleep, a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active.
the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state
Periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness
false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus
the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep
recurring problems in falling or staying asleep
a sleep disorder characterized by sudden and uncontrollable episodes ofdeep sleep (lapse directly into REM sleep)
a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings
a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; occur during Stage 4 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered
a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind. Dreams are notable for their hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities, and incongruities, and for the dreamer's delusional acceptance of the content and later difficulties remembering it.
According to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream (as distinct from its latent, or hidden, content).
the underlying meaning of a dream (according to freud)
the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation (created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep)
a social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur
a suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors.
a split in consciousness which allows some thoughts and behaviors toccur simultanesouly with others
a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood
the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experienceing the drug's effects
the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug
a physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued
a psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions
compulsive drug craving and use, despite adverse consequences
drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions.
drugs that excite neural activity and speed up body functions
drugs that stimlulate neural activity causing speeded up body functions and associated energy and mood changes
a powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system, with speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes; over time, appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels
drugs that depress the acitivity of the central nervous system reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgement
opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety.
a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogenic produces euphoria and social intimacy but with short term health risks and longer term harm to serotonin processing neurons and mood and cognition
a powerful hallucinogenic drug (acid)
psychedelic drug such as LSD that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absense of sensory input
the major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations
an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death (such as through cardiac arrest); often similar to drug-induced hallucinations.