The spirit of laws
This work by Montesquieu called for a separation of powers and heavily influenced the formation of American government
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon
Revolutions of 1848
Democratic and nationalist revolutions that swept across Europe. The monarchy in France was overthrown. In Germany, Austria, Italy, and Hungary the revolutions failed.
Venezuelan statesman who led the revolt of South American colonies against Spanish rule
The French national assembly summoned in 1789 to remedy the financial crisis and correct abuses of the ancien regime.
Olympe de Gouges
A proponent of democracy, she demanded the same rights for French women that French men were demanding for themselves. In her Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen (1791), she challenged the practice of male authority and the notion of male-female inequality. She lost her life to the guillotine due to her revolutionary ideas.
English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience (1632-1704)
king of France from 1774 to 1792
queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband (1755-1793)
Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.
"The incorruptable;" the leader of the bloodiest portion of the French Revolution. He set out to build a republic of virtue.
Declaration of the rights of men
Declaration of the rights of men is a fundamental document of the French Revolution, defining the individual and collective rights of all the estates of the realm as universal.
a political and social system that no longer governs (especially the system that existed in France before the French Revolution)
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789. (p. 585)
A radical republican during the French Revolution
Group of five men who served as liaisons between Robespierre and the Assembly. Overthrown by Napoleon.
Napoleonic Code; this code preserved most of the gains of the revolution by recognizing the principle of the equality of all citizens before the law, and ect.