Medical Terminology (Ch.4)

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Abdominal cavity

The superior portion of the abdominopelvic cavity

Abdominal region

The area of the body trunk located below the diaphragm

Abdominopelvic cavity

The inferior part of the ventral cavity located beneath the diaphragm

Acute

A disease of short duration, usually with a sharp or severe effect

Anatomical position

Erect posture of a subject, with arms at the side, palms facing forward, and legs together with the feet pointing forward

Appendages

The limbs, which are attached to the trunk, and include the head, arms, and legs

Atom

The simplest organized substance of matter

CAT scan

Acronym for computed axial tomography scanning; a diagnostic imaging procedure that uses X-ray technology with computer enhancement and analysis to observe internal body structures

Cavities

Internal spaces of the body that are lined with a membrane and house one or more organs

Cell

The most basic unit of life

Chronic

A disease of long duration

Cranial cavity

The dorsal body cavity that houses the brain

Diagnostic imaging

A noninvasive procedure using instrumentation that seeks to establish a diagnosis by observing body structure and/or function

Diaphragm

The skeletal muscle separating the thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity; it functions in respiratory movements

Directional terms

Words used to describe the relative location of the body or its parts

Disease

A failure of homeostasis resulting in instability of health

Dorsal cavity

The body cavity on the posterior side of the body that includes the cranial cavity and vertebral cavity

Endoscopy

A diagnostic imaging procedure that uses a device that can be inserted into body orifices; a camera at one end enables a health professional to observe interior body spaces

Epigastric region

The upper central abdominal region

Frontal (coronal) plane

A vertical plane passing through the body from side to side, dividing the body into anterior and posterior portions

Homeostasis

The process of maintaining internal stability

Hypochondriac region

The upper right and upper left abdominal regions

Iliac region

The lower right and lower left abdominal regions

Infection

A disease caused by parasitic organisms, such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi

Lumbar region

The middle right and left abdominal regions

MRI

Acronym for magnetic resonance imaging; a diagnostic imaging procedure that uses magnetic fields and computer enhancement to reveal details of internal structures and function

Mediastinum

A potential space in the center of the thoracic cavity that contains the heart and surrounding structures

Molecules

Nonliving particles composed of two or more atoms

Organ

A structure composed of two or more different types of tissues that forms a certain shape and performs a general function

PET scan

Acronym for positron emission tomography scanning; a diagnostic imaging procedure that uses radiology to detect images that have absorbed tracer substances, revealing body functional activity

Pathologist

A physician specializing in the study of disease

Pathology

The study of disease

Pelvic cavity

The bowl-shaped inferior portion of the abdominopelvic cavity

Pericardial cavity

The cavity surrounding the heart between the parietal and visceral pericardia

Physiology

The study of nature; the study of the functional nature of living things

Pleural cavity

The cavity surrounding each lung between the parietal and visceral pleura

Prognosis

A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease

Regions

Areas of the body

Sagittal plane

A vertical plane passing through the body from front to back, dividing the body into right and left portions; a midsagittal plane divides into equal portions, and a parasagittal plane divides into unequal portions

Sign

A finding that can be discovered through objective examination

Symptoms

Experiences of a patient resulting from a disease

System

A group of organs sharing a common function

Thoracic cavity

The superior part of the ventral cavity, also called the chest cavity

Thoracic region

The area of the body trunk located between the neck and the diaphragm

Tissue

A combination of similar cells that combine to form a generalized function

Transverse plane

A horizontal plane dividing the body into superior and inferior portions

Trauma

A physical injury

Central Body Trunk

The torso of the body

Ultrasound imaging (sonography)

A diagnostic imaging procedure that uses a receiver and computer enhancement to detect and enhance sound waves as they echo from body structures

Umbilical region

The middle abdominal region

Ventral cavity

The body cavity on the anterior side of the body that includes the thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity

Vertebral cavity

The dorsal body cavity that houses the spinal cord

Viscera

Internal contents of body cavities, which include organs and supporting structures

Anatomy

The study of body structure

Physiology

the study of the nature of living things

Cardiovascular system

Consists of the heart, arteries, veins, and blood

Lymphatic system

Consists of a network of tubes that carry lymph fluid through the body

Respiratory system

Consists of the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs

Urinary system

Contains the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra, processes bloody by extracting waster materials and producing urine

Digestive system

Consists of the mouth, pharynx, salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small intestine, large intestine, breaks down food

Male reproductive system

Contains the testes, epididymis, vas deferens, urethra, prostate gland, seminal vesicles, bulbourethral glands, penis, and scrotum

Female reproductive system

Consists of ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, vulva, and mammary glands

Nervous system

Consists of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory organs

Endocrine system

Consists of the pituitary, thyroid gland, adrenal glands, pancreatic islets, gonads

Muscular system

Composed of 500 individual muscles

Skeletal system

Forms the body frame; bones, joints

Integumentary system

Includes the skin; hair, sweat glands

Superior

Refers to a body part located above head and relative to another part of upper part of the body

Dorsal and posterior

Interchangeable term that mean "pertaining to the back"

Anterior and ventral

Interchangeable terms "pertaining to the front"

Plane

An imaginary flat field that is used as a point of reference for viewing three dimensional objects

Inferior

Away from the head end or toward lower part of body

Medial

Toward the midline, which is an imaginary vertical line down the middle of the body

Lateral

Toward the side

Superficial

External; toward the body surface

Deep

Internal; inward from the surface of the body

Proximal

Toward the origin or attachment to the trunk

Distal

Away from the origin or attachment to the trunk

Head

Subdivides into the face and the cranium

Neck

Subdivides into the anterior neck and the posterior neck

Trunk

Subdivides into the thorax, the abdomen, the pelvis, and back upper appendages

Upper appendages:

The shoulder, axilla (armpit), brachium (upper arm), elbow, forearm, carpus, manus, and digits

Lower appendages

The gluteus (buttock), femorus (knee), leg, tarus, ankle, food, toes

Fever

A symptom in which body temperature rises above normal

Pain

An unpleasant sensory and emotional experience that is associated with tissue

Sensation

Feeling or mental experience perceiving any stimulus

Sign

An abnormality that is discoverable by an objective exmaination

Symptom

An appearance or sensation experienced by a patient that deviates from the normal healthy state

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