What is aortic stenosis?
Narrowing of the aortic valve
What happens initially during aortic stenosis?
Left ventricle responds with hypertrophy to try to force more blood through the stenotic valve
What is the type of hypertrophy seen?
Walls of the left ventricle are equally thickened
What happens in the later stages?
The ventricle dilates (due to increased volume)
Systolic function deteriorates
What does a normal aortic valve look like?
What does a congenital aortic valve defect look like?
What is the most solvable cardiac problem affecting the developing world today?
Rheumatic aortic stenosis
What is it caused by?
Group A streptococci (GAS)
Begins as pharyngitis (strep throat) and progresses to include joint pain
May also begin as GAS skin infection
Fever is due to delayed immune response to bacteria
What is the stenosis in developed countries usually due to?
Calcific degenerative processes
What is the flow rate for a normal aorta?
Around 1 m/sec
What is the flow rate for aortic sclerosis?
< 2.5 m/sec
What is the flow rate for mid-moderate aortic stenosis?
What is the flow rate for severe aortic stenosis?
> 4 m/sec
How to describe aortic sclerosis?
proliferative and inflammatory changes with lipid accumulation, upregulation of ACE activity, increased oxidative stress and infiltration of macrophages and T lymphocytes