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Which of the following childhood illnesses is vaccine-preventable?

all of the above

Which of the following statements about children's exposure to smoking is correct?

all of the above

Which of the following is NOT typically a factor in enuresis?

emotional stress

Which of the following statements about lead and children's health is false?

The effects of lead poisoning are usually reversible if caught early.

Bonnie has apparently awakened from a deep sleep. She is staring ahead and breathing quickly. When asked if she has had a bad dream, she does not answer but promptly lies back down and falls asleep. The next morning, she has no recollection of the experience. Bonnie experienced

a sleep terror.

Placement of markings on the paper is an important characteristic of the _____ stage of artistic development.

scribble

Which of the following statements about malnutrition in early childhood is false?

The effect of malnutrition on growth is irreversible.

Pedro has gotten proficient in kicking the soccer ball into the goal net. This ability relies on his _____ motor skills.

gross

Which of the following is NOT recommended when trying to encourage healthy eating habits in early childhood?

Insist that the child clean his or her plate.

According to Kellogg, 2-year-old Lucille's artwork that adorns the refrigerator is best characterized as

scribbling.

Which of the following statements regarding early childhood sleep behaviors is false?

Walking and talking during sleep is unusual in early childhood.

As preschoolers develop gross and fine motor skills, they continually merge abilities they already have with those that they are acquiring in order to produce more complex abilities. Such combinations of skills are known as

systems of action.

Information-processing theorists refer to the process of putting information into memory as

encoding.

Recent studies on children's theory of mind suggest that

most 3-year-olds can tell the difference between a boy who has a cookie and a boy who is thinking about a cookie; they know which boy can touch, share, and eat the cookie.

Compared with intelligence tests for infants and toddlers, tests for preschoolers take on a new dimension as emphasis is placed on assessing

verbal skills.

Preoperational children tend to focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect others, leading to illogical conclusions. Piaget called this tendency

centration.

Which of the following statements about Project Head Start is false?

Long-term positive effects of compensatory preschool programs have not been documented.

Because of its lack of reliability, _____ memory has become an important issue in lawsuits involving charges of child abuse.

episodic

Vygotsky viewed private speech as

a tool important to the transition between early social speech and thinking in words.

Lenny, who is 4 years old, is playing outside in the snow when he suddenly asks his father for a cup of hot chocolate. According to Piaget, Lenny's ability to think about hot chocolate, even though there is none around, shows that he is capable of

symbolic function.

Which of the following statements about empathy is correct?

Empathy usually comes earlier to children in families that talk a lot about feelings and causality.

Police officers and social workers questioning young children about suspected abuse should do all of the following except

ask the same question at least three times.

Compared to Project Head Start, the Chicago Child Parent Centers

extend their program from preschool through third grade

Andrew is listening to some music through headphones, and no one else can hear it. When his mother walks into the room he says, "Mommy, do you like this song?" Andrew's question indicates _____ thinking.

egocentric

_____ refers to the practical knowledge needed to use language for communicative purposes.

Pragmatics

Piaget discussed the limitations of thought that are attributed to the preoperational stage. Which of the following is NOT a limitation?

induction

Dakota is using blocks to make a house and a garage. According to Piaget's categorization, Dakota is engaged in

constructive play.

Amanda is popular with her peers. Her parents most likely use a(n) ______ parenting style.

authoritative

In early childhood, a person's sense of self-esteem is derived primarily from

parents' supportive behaviors

Bryce, age 3, is afraid of the family dog. His father helps him overcome the fear by gradual exposure-first having Buddy play in the same room with the dog, then touching the dog briefly, then patting the dog. This technique is called

systematic desensitization.

Tom's father is thrilled that his daughter is playing soccer again this summer, but he is not pleased that his son wants to take art classes. In socializing children, parents generally

show more discomfort if a boy plays with a doll than if a girl plays with a truck.

The ____ is how one perceives oneself, and the ____ is what one would like to be.

real self; ideal self

In the preschool years, a child typically makes logical connections between aspects of the self but still sees these characteristics in all-or-nothing terms. This way of thinking is called

representational mappings

Behaviors, interests, attitudes, and skills considered appropriate for females and males in a given culture are

called gender roles

During free play at preschool, Valerie spends her time playing with Seth and Tifara. Their favorite activity is building with blocks. As they share the blocks, they talk excitedly with one another about their various buildings. This describes

associative play.

Four-year-old Dana goes to her pediatrician for her annual checkup. She tells the nurse her name, address, phone number, and her doctor's name. She also tells the nurse about her sister Nancy. These terms represent Dana's

self-definition.

Johnny brings a note home from school that states that he hit the school principal with a spitball. His mother is very upset, but his father simply says, "Relax, kids will be kids. No one got hurt, so what is the problem?" Which parenting style is Johnny's father demonstrating?

permissive

Which of the following perspectives on gender identity development is least favored by developmental psychologists?

psychoanalytic theory

Children who are punished harshly may

all of the above

Five-year-old Shawn is playing with his sister Cheryl's doll. She tells him to put it down because "boys don't play with dolls!" This is an example of a gender

stereotype.

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